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Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes. © The Author(s). 2017. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat and ketogenic diets are increasingly adopted by athletes for body composition and sports performance enhancements. However, as yet, there is student doctor essay 101 no consensus on david essay stadium pal their efficacy in improving performance. There is also no comprehensive literature on athletes’ experiences while undertaking this diet. The purpose of this pilot work was two-fold: i. to examine the student doctor, effects of a non-calorie controlled ketogenic diet on body composition and performance outcomes of endurance athletes, and ii. to evaluate the athletes’ experiences of the domyessay, ketogenic diet during the 10-week intervention.
Using a case study design, five New Zealand endurance athletes (4 females, 1 male) underwent a 10-week ketogenic dietary intervention. Doctor Essay? Body composition (sum of 8 skinfolds), performance indicators (time to on failure in pakistan, exhaustion, VO 2 max, peak power and student doctor essay 101 ventilatory threshold), and gas exchange thresholds were measured at essay on failure of democracy in pakistan, baseline and at student, 10 weeks. Mean change scores were calculated, and analysed using t-tests; Cohen’s effect sizes and an argumentative essay with a question 90% confidence limits were applied to quantify change. Individual interviews conducted at student essay, 5 weeks and a focus group at 10 weeks assessed athletes’ ketogenic diet experiences. Essay Stadium Pal? Data was transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. All athletes increased their ability to student doctor essay 101, utilise fat as a fuel source, including at higher exercise intensities. Demographic Transition Essay? Mean body weight was reduced by student doctor, 4 kg ± SD 3.1 ( p = 0.046; effect size (ES):0.62), and sum of 8 skinfolds by 25.9 mm ± SD 6.9; ES: 1.27; p = 0.001).
Mean time to exhaustion dropped by. 2 min (±SD 0.7; p = 0.004; ES: 0.53). Other performance outcomes showed mean reductions, with some increases or unchanged results in essay with two individuals (VO2 Max: ?1.69 ml.kg.min ± SD 3.4 ( p = 0.63); peak power: -18 W ± SD 16.4 ( p = 0.07), and VT2: -6 W ± SD 44.5 ( p = 0.77). Athletes reported experiencing reduced energy levels initially, followed by student 101, a return of high levels thereafter, especially during exercise, but an inability to easily undertake high intense bouts. Each athlete reported experiencing enhanced well-being, included improved recovery, improvements in skin conditions and reduced inflammation. Despite performance decrements and some negative experiences, athletes were keen to pursue a modified low-carbohydrate, high-fat eating style moving forward due to the unexpected health benefits they experienced. ACTRN: ACTRN12617000613303 . Registered 28 April 2017, retrospectively registered. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diets, including their extreme version i.e., ketogenic diets have recently become popular dietary regimes for athletes for several reasons.
However, there is no consensus regarding the efficacy of ketogenic diets on sports performance. The overarching mainstream nutrition philosophy for on failure of democracy endurance athletes, is one that emphasises a carbohydrate-dominant, low fat paradigm. Student Essay? Under these dietary conditions, athletes utilise carbohydrate as their predominant fuel source to transition essay, fuel high volumes of aerobic exercise [ 1 ]. The appeal of LCHF eating for endurance athletes is likely due to doctor essay 101, the shift in short prompts fuel utilisation, from a carbohydrate-centric model to one that utilises fat predominantly, of which stores are unlimited compared to carbohydrate (i.e., muscle glycogen). This metabolic shift, seen after a period of dietary alteration is often referred to doctor 101, as being ‘fat-adapted’, which has been well-documented in studies since the literature paper, 1980s [ 2 , 3 ]. Despite the student essay 101, physiological advantage of utilising fat as a fuel source during sub-maximal exercise, to date there is no conclusive evidence to research, suggest that this results in subsequent performance enhancement [ 4 ]. Some individual responses to a ketogenic diet have shown dramatic benefits in both fat metabolism and performance, and student 101 are worth further investigation [ 5 , 6 ]. However, studies have also shown a reduction in maximal aerobic performance [ 7 ] with some evidence indicating a negative effect on exercise intensity 70% of VO 2 max [ 8 , 9 ]. The majority of these studies have been criticised for not being long enough to allow for the full adaptive mechanisms to occur, which appear to can you start an argumentative essay with, require at least 21 days. Despite the lack of peer-reviewed evidence for performance enhancement, athletes continue to be intrigued with the LCHF dietary paradigm. It is likely that this is the essay, case for stanford essay two reasons that go beyond the desire to obtain the extra performance edge: 1. a reduction in body fat that is frequently cited when athletes undertake LCHF or ketogenic diets [ 10 ], and 2. the anecdotal benefits that are cited by athletes eating this way. Student Doctor 101? There is very little athlete-specific literature, particularly of a qualitative nature, addressing non-performance outcomes of LCHF or ketogenic eating in an athlete cohort. In a translational case study design, this pilot study set out to stanford short essay, investigate the effect of student essay 101 a 10-week ketogenic diet on sedaris stadium pal body composition and doctor essay 101 performance outcomes in with a question five New Zealand endurance athletes, as well as to evaluate, qualitatively, the athletes’ experiences of undertaking the ketogenic diet during their training season.
This was a pilot, 10-week intervention undertaken with five case studies. A control group was not included. Student Doctor Essay 101? The study took place at AUT, Human Potential Centre; ethics was approved by the AUT Ethics Committee (application 15/415). Training volume (hours/week) Performance test. Participants reported to the lab in the morning in a fasted state and stanford essay prompts underwent a performance test on doctor three occasions: i. one week prior to the intervention (familiarisation), ii. Domyessay? immediately prior to the intervention (baseline), and iii. Immediately post the doctor essay, intervention (post). Stanford Essay? To determine ( ^ _ ) and gas exchange thresholds (GET) an incremental cycle test was performed using an electromagnetically controlled cycle ergometer (Ergoselect 100, Ergoline, Bitz, Germany) in doctor essay a temperature-controlled laboratory (21 °C, 65% rH).
The test commenced at demographic essay, 30 W and increased by 30 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. Participants were instructed to maintain a cadence of doctor 80 revolutions.min ?1 . Oxygen uptake ( ( ^ _2 ) ) was measured continuously using a breath-by-breath metabolic system (Metamax 3b, Cortex, Leipzig, Germany), and heart rate was continuously measured using a short-range telemetry device (Suunto M2, Suunto, Vantaa, Finland). Research Paper? The ( ^ _ ) was defined as the highest 30s ( ^ _2 ) value and student doctor essay the GET was identified independently by two experienced investigators using the V-slope method [ 11 ]. Dietary instruction. An initial consultation was conducted with each participant by american literature research paper, the primary researcher/Registered Dietitian directly after the student, performance test. Participants were provided with a daily macronutrient prescription of 50 g total carbohydrate, 1.5 g.kg protein and demographic transition ad libitum fat. Student? A detailed explanation of the practical application of the ketogenic dietary principles along with appropriate tracking and monitoring procedures was provided. Participants were provided with a sample diet and were advised to american literature paper, add variations as long as they adhered to the carbohydrate and essay 101 protein macronutrient thresholds. They were instructed to track their diet using a dietary analysis programme Easy Diet Diary® (Xyris Software (Australia) Pty Ltd).
Diets were monitored weekly by transition, the primary researcher, and participants were contacted and offered additional support if they deviated. The primary researcher maintained regular contact with all participants throughout the 10-week study duration. Exercise instruction. The participants were all seasoned athletes, and participated on a regular basis in endurance events, i.e., mountain biking, road biking, running and student doctor 101 multisport events (which included running, cycling and kayaking), both recreationally and demographic transition competitively. Hence, their training protocols did not vary much from month-to-month. They were instructed to continue with their existing training volumes for the duration of the intervention. Ketone blood testing. Each participant was shown how to measure blood ketone levels via finger prick, and provided with a FreeStyle Optium ketone meter and student essay ketone strips. They were instructed to measure their blood ketone levels daily between 2 pm and 4 pm.
Nutritional ketosis was defined as a blood ketone (beta-hydroxybutyrate) level 0.5 mmol/l. Anthropometric testing. African Literature? Body weight and skinfolds were measured by an ISAK level one accredited anthropometrist, prior to 101, and at the conclusion of the intervention, at start an argumentative essay a question, the same time of the day. A sum of (?) 8-site skinfold ISAK protocol was applied: triceps, biceps, subscapular, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf [ 12 ]. Interviews and student doctor 101 focus group. A 20–30 min individual interview was conducted on the phone during week 5 week and pal a 60-min focus group was conducted in person once the 101, intervention had concluded. The importance of this qualitative work was to assess both the individual and the groups’ overall experiences of being on this diet for 10 weeks. The group session provided a chance for athletes to can you essay a question, compare experiences and translate findings to future practice. Due to the explorative nature of this study, and our small sample size, quantitative data is presented as individual responses. Data was analysed using mean change scores, with Cohen’s effect sizes and associated confidence limits applied to quantify magnitude of change.
We also elected to apply a probability statistic using a student’s t-test to doctor essay, determine the can you a question, statistical meaning of the change. Doctor 101? All statistics were generated and applied using Microsoft Excel 2016. We acknowledge that applying statistical models hold limited meaning in this context and it is not our intention to make any inferences about these outcomes to athlete populations. Transition? As such, outcomes with a significance level of p 0.05 should be considered a trend only; and 101 p 0.01 significant only in the sense that further work is can you start an argumentative required to substantiate these findings. Interviews and the focus group were recorded and transcribed, after which data was analysed using thematic analysis.
The data for student 101 the interviews and focus groups were combined and is presented as key themes with supporting transcripts. Participants’ dietary data and demographic transition macronutrient composition. ? cup granola a , 150 ml coconut cream, 100 g mixed frozen berries, 30 ml coconut oil. 125 g smoked salmon, 2 egg muffins b , 100 g avocado. 120 g fish cooked in 1 T c olive oil, 80 g broccoli, ? cup almonds, 50 g feta cheese.
2 X Coffee (60 ml cream) Energy 2450Cal; Net carbohydrate 24 g; Protein 103 g (1.4 g/kg); Fat 215 g. 3 rashers bacon, 2 eggs scrambled in 1 T coconut cream. Salad: spinach leaves, ? avocado, 30 g Gruyere cheese, 60 g salmon, spring onion, 1 T avocado oil, ? cup sliced almonds. 100 g rump steak, salad (spinach, spring onion, pepper, carrot, desiccated coconut, 1 T pumpkin seeds), 2 tsp. d pesto. 40 g blue cheese; 180 ml red wine; herbal tea; water. Energy 1710Cal; Net carbohydrate 9 g; Protein 94 g (1.5 g/kg); Fat 128 g. ? cup granola, 125 ml coconut cream, 50 g mixed frozen berries. 1 egg muffin, 100 g avocado, dessert spoon peanut butter, square chocolate. 100 g pork straps, 70 g spinach, 1 cup cauliflower rice, 1 T butter square 85% dark chocolate 180 ml red wine. Coffee, 100 ml soya milk; green tea; 1 strawberry; 20 g ham; 30 g almonds; water.
Energy 1768Cal; Net carbohydrate 33 g; Protein 76 g (1.1 g/kg); Fat 131 g. ? cup granola a , 150 ml Greek yoghurt, 50 g mixed frozen berries. 95 g tin tuna, avocado, cheese, 1 T olive oil. 100 g chicken with skin, 1 tsp. Student? soy sauce, 1 cup cauliflower, 25 g leek, 50 g asparagus, 1 T butter. 30 g salami; ? cup almonds; coffee, 150 ml milk; 100 ml coconut cream, water. Energy 1919Cal; Net carbohydrate 31 g; Protein 96 g (1.5 g/kg); Fat 154 g. 2-egg omelette (spinach, mushroom) cooked in 2 tsp. butter. Salad: 1 cup mesclun leaves, ? avocado. Start With? 30 g feta cheese, 90 g chicken, 6 baby tomatoes, 50 g cucumber, 30 g celery, 2 T olive oil.
120 g fish, stir-fry vegetables (1 medium zuchini, 50 g broccoli, 5 mushrooms, ? brown onion), cooked in 1 T olive oil. 100 ml coconut cream; 30 g almonds; water. Energy 1406Cal; Net carbohydrate 19 g; Protein 93 g (1.5 g/kg); Fat 103 g. a granola was made in a batch and consisted of a range of nuts, seeds, coconut threads and coconut oil. c T = tablespoon. d tsp. = teaspoon. Pre, and post intervention metabolic efficiency curves for each participant. * PF ox : Peak Fat Oxidation (g/min). † Fat max : Maximum fat oxidation at % WR max. Each curve displays the cross-over point i.e., the point at which peak fat oxidation is reached, and the point at which carbohydrate takes over as the predominant fuel source. Mean peak absolute fat oxidation and standard deviation (SD) increased by 41.3% (0.6 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.1 g.min ?1 , p = 0.001). Doctor 101? All of the essay of democracy, athletes increased their peak fat oxidation. The exercise intensity relative to ( ^ _ ) at which peak absolute fat oxidation occurred (Fat max ) increased by 31.2% from pre- to post-intervention (48.2 ± 8.7 to 63.2 ± 5.7% ( ^ _ ) , p = 0.06).
Similarly, Fat max relative to student, WR max increased by 21.5% from pre- to post-intervention (39.5 ± 11.9 to 48.0 ± 8.9%WR max , p = 0.18). Two out of the african research, five athletes showed an increase in Fat max relative to WR max , and doctor essay the remaining three showed no change. Individual responses and effect sizes of anthropometry and performance variables. All participants showed a decrease in time to exhaustion (TTE), the mean time and SD reduction was 2 ± 0.7 min ( p = 0.004). More varied responses were noted in the change in can you start an argumentative with VO2 Max (mean change ?1.69 ± 3.4 ml.kg.min ( p = 0.63)), peak power (mean change ?18 ± 16.4 W ( p = 0.07)) and ventilatory threshold, VT2 (mean change ?6 ± 44.5 W ( p = 0.77)), with some athletes improving (VT2 and VO2 max) or staying the doctor, same (VT2 and domyessay peak power). Themes from interviews and 101 focus group with supporting transcripts.
Loss of power during exercise/training. “The recovery each time was amazing. I would go for a 4–5 h run then be able to mountain bike the next day, just to be able to do it without sore muscles”. “The next day after a 4-h run I could have got up and done it again - my legs weren’t tired or sore”. “Certainly I’ve had the recovery benefits I felt fine to an argumentative with, go out the next day and doctor essay do stuff I didn’t feel the muscle soreness I would have expected”. “I don’t feel sore”. “I was surprised that I could run comfortably for that long so I think the recovery was huge I never felt this, it’s unheard of” “It was embarrassing to domyessay, the point where I just got to the point where you just don’t have any energy”. (weeks 1–5) “I got too tired and 101 I got to the point where I might have had some big runs, 4 or 5 h runs and stanford prompts wake in the night before hand, worried about it. Doctor Essay 101? I’d think, how am I going to can you start essay a question, do that tomorrow… it’s going to be hard”. (weeks 1–5) “The lack of essay power, I just couldn’t get up the hill.” (weeks 6–10) Negative symptoms (weeks 1–3) “I hadn’t been for essay on failure of democracy in pakistan 4 days and student doctor essay I was starting to get bound up”. (constipation).
“One of the downsides is that I had cramps, massive cramps”. “I may have seemed a bit irritable for a while. People close to me realised I was down and I’m pretty good at demographic essay, hiding that but people picked it up”. Enjoyment of student 101 this way of eating. “It’s given me the freedom to eat the essay on failure of democracy, things that I stopped eating for a long time because I thought it was a no-no”. “Not feeling hungry has been amazing”. (X2) “Not being bothered about food, you know food doesn’t bother me anymore, as before I had a meal and 3 h later I’d feel irritable if I didn’t eat”. “It’s been fantastic for me having food I couldn’t for essay 101 a long time and demographic transition essay I really enjoy it, the flavour, for me the reason why I want to carry on with this way of eating is because I actually enjoy it, I enjoy it far more than my previous diet”. Food regime boredom. “Bored with the student doctor essay 101, food regime, actually I’m back on fruit …” “…but I am starting to get sick of the diet plan”.
“You can’t even free load in transition your veggies.” “Being able to shed that 5 kg was definitely a benefit”. “The benefit now of me being able to understanding how to manage my weight, that’s been a real effect, actually that’s been for all of us”. Feel better overall (well-being) “My skin hasn’t been this good since I can remember”. “My prostate, a million times better because I can sleep”. “The other thing I noticed is my tinnitus is a lot better, I can’t hear the ringing in student my ears I used to have”. “Just general health - I just feel better, I need less sleep”. “I noticed that I didn’t fart for 2 months, no gas”. “Yes, no gas, that’s the same as me.” “I feel sharper mentally”. “Food used to dictate my moods, and now it doesn’t”. “Positive skin, I have a facial every 6 weeks, I didn’t tell the facial lady what I was doing and she said to me what’s happened to your skin? No extractions in the last 8 weeks, no blockages”.
This study presents a real-life insight into the lives of five seasonal endurance athletes who by virtue of their own curiosity wished to experience the domyessay, effects of doctor essay 101 a ketogenic diet on domyessay their sports performance. Overall, participants were able to increase the 101, substrate utilisation of free fatty acids, reduce body fat and experience positive health benefits, but their maximal aerobic performance was compromised. The reduced body fat can likely be explained by a resultant calorie deficit created by essay, the diet, as participants reported enhanced feelings of satiety and a reduction in overall food intake. This outcome was unsurprising and comparable to findings in previous research on both strength and student 101 endurance athletes [ 13 – 15 ]. Initial weight reduction can be associated with a loss in body water through glycogen depletion, [ 16 , 17 ], and of democracy this was also likely the student doctor essay, case in can you start an argumentative a question this study; however fat loss was evident as per skinfold changes. A further theory relating to student essay, weight loss, which is as yet, rigorously tested, is an increased drive for fat breakdown rather than storage as circulating levels of insulin remain low during ketogenic diets [ 18 ]. Perhaps a combination of american literature all three mechanisms can explain the weight loss.
A limitation of the study was a lack of energy comparison prior to, and during the study, which would have provided some clarity about student essay, these mechanisms. All participants had a greater fatty acid oxidation at a higher given intensity at the end of the african literature research paper, trial compared to baseline. Doctor 101? This finding of enhanced fat utilisation aligns with those of several other groups that have incorporated ketogenic and non-ketogenic dietary protocols [ 5 , 19 , 20 ]. Furthermore, this substrate utilisation alteration can be attributed to the change in start with diet as training was kept relatively consistent throughout the intervention. Doctor 101? Our participants also had a higher oxygen cost at sub-maximal workloads due to of democracy in pakistan, the higher use of fat as an energy substrate. However, this did not benefit exercise capacity. On the whole, maximal aerobic performance was reduced, another comparable outcome to similar research [ 21 – 23 ], the student doctor essay 101, exception being one athlete in short prompts Phinney et al.’s 4-week cycling study [ 5 ], and Zajac et al.’s eight off-road cyclists [ 6 ], who all showed performance increases.
The performance decrement in our study, and others, is likely due to student doctor essay 101, changes in metabolic pathways that impair glycogen metabolism at higher exercise intensities [ 24 – 26 ]. Specifically, a down-regulation of the carbohydrate oxidative enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which via conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, links the glycolytic pathway with the Krebs cycle [ 27 ]. PDH is said to be reduced rapidly through a reduction in circulating insulin and an increase in circulating levels of free fatty acids [ 28 ]. Evidence suggests that PDH is upregulated upon domyessay, carbohydrate reintroduction [ 25 ]; however, there is little insight into its fate along with other mitochondrial enzymes in the context of student essay low carbohydrate availability. Despite similarities in findings with other studies, some of these studies are limited by short-duration low carbohydrate diets [ 28 – 30 ]. Future research with chronically fat-adapted athletes is needed to investigate these micro-level mechanisms alongside performance outcomes. Recently, Volek et al.’s work [ 19 ] with chronically fat-adapted ultra-endurance athletes (6 months) not only demonstrated a 2.3 times greater fat oxidation rate in domyessay the LCHF group compared with the mainstream dietary group, but also demonstrated no difference in resting and replete muscle glycogen stores between groups. Authors suggest a homeostatic muscle glycogen repletion mechanism arising from hepatic gluconeogenesis, which might serve to provide clues into why many athletes report optimal performance, anecdotally, when having eaten in an LCHF manner for essay 101 extended periods of american literature research paper time. Doctor Essay 101? While this is a plausible speculation, a similar study by on failure of democracy, Webster et al., [ 20 ] showed no difference in gluconeogenic rates during exercise in fasting LCHF and mixed-diet athletes.
In fact, glucose was produced endogenously to student doctor, a greater extent in the mixed diet group, and was attributed to greater rates of hepatic glycogenolysis. Researchers concluded that gluconeogenesis during exercise may remain stable across a range of dietary regimes after an domyessay, overnight fast, but that hepatic glycogenolysis is influenced by dietary carbohydrate. Further exploration of student essay 101 fuel contributions to gluconeogenesis and the effect of different feeding protocols on endogenous glucose producing mechanisms is warranted. It is paper important to note that both of student essay 101 these studies did not incorporate a performance measure, leaving the questions to demographic essay, this key issue unanswered [ 19 , 20 ]. This is one of the doctor essay 101, few studies to report specifically on endurance athletes’ experiences of undertaking a ketogenic diet.
Athletes reported similar negative physiological experiences to those reported by athletes in demographic comparable ketogenic diet studies [ 13 , 14 , 31 ]. However, they also reported experiencing benefits throughout the trial. One of student essay 101 these benefits was enhanced recovery; possibly, the start essay, rise in blood ketones had some influence, as beta-hydroxybutyrate has been associated with upregulating antioxidant gene expression and decreasing reactive oxygen species [ 32 ]. However, further research is student doctor essay required to substantiate this within athletic populations. From a physical well-being perspective, the cases of short essay prompts improved skin, and the resolution of an student doctor, ongoing prostate issue, were major points of discussion of benefits experienced. We speculate that it is the reduction of systemic inflammation as a result of can you an argumentative essay a question a lower total sugar [ 33 ] and Omega 6 fatty acid intake, thereby rebalancing the Omega 6:3 fatty acid ratio in student essay an anti-inflammatory direction [ 34 ] that gave rise to these outcomes. All participants were consuming high-Omega 6 industrial seed oils prior to transition essay, the study (used as cooking fat and derived from student, processed foods). During the study these fats were replaced with coconut oil, butter and olive oil; i.e., fats containing minimal Omega 6 fatty acid content. Being a translational study, we followed up participants informally 12 months after the study concluded. They were all still competing in endurance events, and while not eating a ketogenic diet, none of them had returned to literature research paper, their previous high carbohydrate, low fat style of eating.
Collectively, they reported that once the study concluded they gradually increased their carbohydrate intake until the point at which they felt their performance at high intensities return. Student Essay? They were still restricting carbohydrate and eating more fat than mainstream guidelines recommend, and can you start an argumentative with a question reported having discovered the optimal macronutrient ratio that satisfied a performance, body composition and a health goal. This study had several limitations: Its design as a pilot case study, with no standardisation of student essay training prevents any inference from being made to demographic transition, athletic populations. However, it is still relevant to both the researcher and the practitioner as it provides insights into what is considered important for doctor 101 athletes, particularly those in the 40+ age range. i.e., alongside improving performance, they are also more cognisant of their overall health and well-being. A lesson learned from transition essay, undertaking this research, and a key consideration for researchers and practitioners, is to encourage a reduction in doctor athlete training intensity and volume in essay on failure the early weeks of student essay embarking on demographic a ketogenic diet. Doctor 101? This will likely induce less early fatigue and other negative symptoms related to training, and allow for metabolic adaptations to occur in a lower stress milieu. Despite a decrease in domyessay performance, athletes reduced body fat and experienced unexpected well-being benefits. While performance outcomes are key to the field of doctor essay sports science and domyessay medicine, what might be overlooked, is the integration of health and well-being, alongside performance. Further research, both conceptual and doctor translational, should challenge this type of diet further to understand its potential uses to achieve what an african literature research paper, endurance athlete and their support team should ultimately be striving for i.e., optimal body composition, health and performance. Gas exchange thresholds. Time to exhaustion.
This study was funded by AUT, Sports Performance Research Institute, New Zealand. The funding body had no input into any aspect of the student essay, study. Availability of data and essay pal materials. The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The study was designed by CZ and MaW; data were collected and analysed by CZ, MaW, EM, and student doctor essay 101 MW; data interpretation and manuscript preparation were undertaken by can you an argumentative essay a question, CZ, MaW, MW and student doctor SC. All authors approved the final version of the paper. Ethics approval and consent to participate. Ethics was approved by sedaris, the AUT Ethics Committee (application 15/415). All participants provided their consent for their individual data to be published. The corresponding author, CZ, has co-authored two books called “What The Fat? - Fat’s in, Sugar’s out”, and student doctor essay “What The Fat – Sports performance”. These books were constructed and published after the study was concluded.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in essay of democracy in pakistan published maps and essay institutional affiliations. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Burke LM, Hawley JA, Wong SH, Jeukendrup AE. Demographic Essay? Carbohydrates for training and competition. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(Suppl 1):S17–27. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Lambert EV, Hawley JA, Goedecke J, Noakes T. Nutritional strategies for doctor 101 promoting fat utilization and delaying the african paper, onset of fatigue during prolonged exercise. J Sports Sci. 1997;15(3):315–24. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Phinney SD.
Ketogenic diets and physical performance. Nutr Metab. 2004;1(1):2. Student? View ArticleGoogle Scholar Noakes T, Volek JS, Phinney SD. Low-carbohydrate diets for athletes: what evidence? Br J Sports Med.
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Effects of a short-term carbohydrate-restricted diet on strength and power performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(8):2255–62. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Dipla K, Makri M, Zafeiridis A, Soulas D, Tsalouhidou S, Mougios V, Kellis S. An isoenergetic high-protein, moderate-fat diet does not compromise strength and fatigue during resistance exercise in student essay 101 women. Br J Nutr. 2008;100(2):283–6. Stanford Short? View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Bergstrom J, Hermansen L, Hultman E, Saltin B. Diet, muscle glycogen and physical performance. Student Doctor Essay? Acta Physiol Scand.
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Gluconeogenesis during endurance exercise in cyclists habituated to a long-term low carbohydrate high-fat diet. J Physiol. 2016;594(15):4389–405. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Havemann L, West SJ, Goedecke JH, Macdonald IA, St Clair Gibson A, Noakes TD, Lambert EV. Fat adaptation followed by domyessay, carbohydrate loading compromises high-intensity sprint performance.
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Nutr Metab. 2004;1(1):7. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Peters SJ, Harris RA, Wu P, Pehleman TL, Heigenhauser GJ, Spriet LL. Human skeletal muscle PDH kinase activity and isoform expression during a 3-day high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;281(6):E1151–8. PubMedGoogle Scholar Peters SJ, St Amand TA, Howlett RA, Heigenhauser GJ, Spriet LL. Human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity increases after a low-carbohydrate diet. Am J Phys. Domyessay? 1998;275(6 Pt 1):E980–6.
Google Scholar Putman CT, Spriet LL, Hultman E, Lindinger MI, Lands LC, McKelvie RS, Cederblad G, Jones NL, Heigenhauser GJ. Student Essay 101? Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and stadium acetyl group accumulation during exercise after different diets. Am J Phys. 1993;265(5 Pt 1):E752–60. Google Scholar Horswill CA, Hickner RC, Scott JR, Costill DL, Gould D. Student Essay? Weight loss, dietary carbohydrate modifications, and domyessay high intensity, physical performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22(4):470–6. Student Doctor Essay 101? PubMedGoogle Scholar Shimazu T, Hirschey MD, Newman J, He W, Shirakawa K, Le Moan N, et al. Research? Suppression of oxidative stress by beta-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor. Science.
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10 Essential Tips for Your Amazing Social Work Resume. by Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP. Is your resume ready to send out to student employers? You have Googled example resume templates, perfected your formatting, and demographic transition, added appropriate action words. Everything is in the correct tense, in reverse chronological order, and kept to two pages or less. What else should you think about for an amazing social work resume? Whether you are a clinical or macro social worker, student, new professional, or have been in the field for 30 years, these essential tips will keep your resume ready to send out to your future employer. 1. Student Essay 101! Objective or Professional Summary? Let’s start at the beginning. Domyessay! I am not a fan of the objective, and neither are many hiring managers. If they are reading your resume, they already know you are seeking a position with them. Generally, an objective is used by 101 someone who has recently graduated or has very little experience.
If you have plenty of social work experience, you should consider using a professional summary. This is one to three sentences at the beginning of demographic, your resume that help describe the value you bring as a social worker through your skills and student doctor essay, experience. This helps your reader know right away if you will be a good fit for the hiring organization. It is in pakistan, much easier for a hiring manager to find that value in a short paragraph than trying to piece it together from a lengthy history of professional experience and doctor essay 101, education. DON’T: Objective: Seeking a social work position within a facility where I can utilize my experience to david essay stadium pal the benefit of my employer as well as gain knowledge and professional growth. DO: Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 6+ years experience in doctor 101 medical and mental health settings, working with diverse populations in can you start an argumentative essay with private practice, health care, outpatient, and inpatient treatment settings. Recently relocated to Georgia. 2. Don’t assume your reader already knows what you do. This is one of the biggest mistakes I see when reviewing resumes. Write your resume as if the person reading it has no idea what you do. Really?
Yes! This will help you to be descriptive about student, your experience. For some reason, some social workers are not very good at can you an argumentative a question tooting their own horns. Your resume is exactly the place you need to student essay brag about what an amazing professional you are. Don’t assume that because your title was “Outpatient Therapist,” the domyessay reader of doctor, your resume will know exactly what you did. Be descriptive. Give a little information about the organization or program, the clients, and the type of therapy or work you performed. This can easily be done in three to five bullets if you craft thoughtful, complete sentences.
DON’T: Provide psychotherapy to clients. DO: Provide group and individual outpatient therapy to adult clients at a substance abuse treatment center utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), psychoeducation, and motivational interviewing. If you worked in a position for five years but don’t list one relevant accomplishment, that is a red flag for a hiring manager. Essay! Describing accomplishments is more than simply listing your job duties. These are the student contributions you have made in your career that would encourage an transition, organization to doctor hire you. Questions you can ask yourself to essay of democracy help remember your accomplishments include: How did you help your clients? Did you create a new form or program based on the needs of the client population? Did your therapy skills reduce the relapse rate in your agency? Did you save your organization money by coming up with a cost-saving idea? Were you selected for special projects, committees, or task forces? Even if the student doctor only social work experience you have on your resume is your field placement, you should be able to list an american literature, accomplishment that will entice the student essay 101 reader to want to know more.
DON’T: Completed appropriate and timely documentation according to compliance guidelines. DO: Recognized need for updated agency forms. Developed 10 clinical and david, administrative forms, including no-harm contract, behavior contract, and therapist’s behavior inventory, which increased staff efficiency and productivity by student 101 15%. 4.Quantify your accomplishments. Numbers aren’t just for business professionals. Numbers also help with the bragging I mentioned that needs to happen on your resume. The most convincing accomplishments are measurable and help your resume stand out from the crowd.
How many clients did you serve? How much money did you receive for that grant you secured for your agency? How many people do you supervise? DON’T: Wrote grants for essay counseling program in schools. DO: Co-wrote School Group Experiences proposal, which received a $150,000 grant from student doctor essay 101 State Foundation for david essay stadium pal Health, resulting in 101 doubling the number of children served in group counseling from stanford short prompts 120 children to doctor 101 240 children, and increasing the percentage of minority children served from 20% to 50% of the total child population in domyessay group therapy. 5. Doctor Essay 101! Tailor your resume to the specific job. On Failure Of Democracy! You have heard this over and over, and it should make sense.
Still, not many social workers do this correctly or at all. Student! Many big organizations, hospitals, and university systems use online applicant tracking systems to review resumes. Stanford Prompts! When one job has 100 applicants, this is when using keywords REALLY counts. Look at the job description for keywords. For example, what words do they use to describe the clients? Patients, clients, residents, victims, survivors, adults, children? If you have worked with the same client populations, used the same therapy techniques, or provided the supervision listed in the job description, make sure these SAME words are in your resume. Hiring managers can tell when you haven’t put any time into matching your experience with their open position. DON’T: Provide in-home therapy for doctor essay 101 families. DO: (Similar language from job description) Perform individual and domyessay, family, agency, and student essay 101, home-based therapy for medically fragile children and their families (parents and domyessay, siblings) with goal of maintaining intact families and improving family functioning.
Social workers LOVE to student use acronyms. Domyessay! Many social workers spend hours writing case notes, and to essay 101 be efficient, they rely on acronyms to describe their work. For the same reasons you should use keywords, it is essential that you spell things out for the computer or human resources person who may not know what certain acronyms mean. I am a social worker with limited clinical knowledge, and I often have to Google acronyms when I review NASW members’ resumes. The reader responsible for finding the right candidates to demographic essay interview will consider this a waste of his or her time and might move on to the rest of the 101 resumes in the pile if he or she has no idea what you are talking about. DON’T: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments to include SIB-R, CBCL, CTRF, or SCQ in packets for families scheduled for autism evaluations.
DO: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments for autism evaluations including Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (CTRF), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Most resumes I review are succinct and formatted very nicely by domyessay bulleting experience. But there are still some folks who use paragraphs to student essay 101 describe their experience. You may have 20 years of social work experience at pal one agency, but that does not mean you can’t be concise. I guarantee you that hiring managers are not going to read a paragraph that is 15 lines long to look for the experience that will fit the student doctor position they are trying to fill. Write your resume in such a way that it is easy to scan and find the keywords in 30 seconds or less. American Literature Research! Use three to eight bullets to describe your experience and student doctor essay, accomplishments.
8. Do not list every continuing education training you have ever attended. David Stadium Pal! Whether or not you are licensed in your state, you should seek out continuing education in social work. Don’t forget, it is in the NASW Code of Ethics: Section 4.01 (b) Competence: “…Social workers should routinely review the professional literature and student doctor, participate in continuing education relevant to domyessay social work practice and social work ethics.” It is great to show your reader that you are up to essay date on the latest clinical information on your client population, but the demographic section on your resume for Continuing Education or Professional Development should only list the courses that are relevant to the job you are applying for. It is a great idea to doctor essay keep a list of all your continuing education, for your own reference and for your license renewal. You just don’t need to list them all on your resume. I hope you are seeing a theme here.
Recently, I have come across a few resumes that have all of the following sections: #13; #13; Professional Summary #13; Education #13; Relevant Social Work Experience #13; Work Experience #13; Additional Experience #13; Summary of stanford essay prompts, Skills #13; Professional Affiliations #13; Volunteer Experience #13; Publications #13; Relevant Coursework #13; Activities #13; Honors #13; Every resume is personal and different. You don’t need 10 categories on your resume. Professional Experience and Education are musts. but after that, limit the student essay 101 places hiring managers need to search to find the information that will help them decide to demographic interview you. Only put the doctor essay 101 information that is most relevant to the job to which you are applying. 10. Your references should always be available upon request and not on your resume. If the last line on your resume is “References Available Upon Request,” this one is for you. It is not necessary to tell your reader that you have references. If you get far enough in the interview process, they will ask you for your references.
Have them listed in a separate document. Only send the david stadium pal references that are relevant, and only send them when asked. It is imperative that you inform your references that they may be contacted, and student, always send them a copy of the job description and your recent resume, so they can be prepared when contacted. Nothing is a bigger turnoff to me than getting a call to be a reference for can you start with a question someone I supervised five years ago and student essay 101, I can’t remember exactly what their job duties were. It is great to get a heads-up and a reminder of what the essay on failure in pakistan person did under my supervision. And don’t forget to send your references a thank-you note, even if you didn’t get the job! DON’T: References Available Upon Request. DO: (Separate document with your contact information at the top) References: Jessica Rogers, MSW, LICSW, Director of Family Programs, Affordable Housing AuthorityChicago, ILRelationship: Former SupervisorPhone: firstname.lastname@example.orgJessica was my direct supervisor and is familiar with my clinical social work skills, my ability to work with diverse communities, and my aptitude for managing relationships with partner organizations. Jessica recognized my success in client outcomes and essay 101, promoted me within 6 months of my hire date.
Remember, your resume is your tool to get an interview. It doesn’t need to include every detail about you as a professional social worker. Use your cover letter to domyessay expand on student doctor, details that are specific to the job you are seeking. During the interview, you can go into more detail about your relevant experience. Demographic Transition Essay! Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP, is the Associate Executive Director for the National Association of Social Workers, North Carolina Chapter (NASW-NC). She received her dual degree in social work and public policy from the University of doctor 101, Minnesota and currently provides membership support, including resume review, to can you start an argumentative the members of NASW-NC. Graduating with my MSW in doctor social work this helps out domyessay, a lot. Student Doctor Essay 101! Thank you so much for this article.
I greatly appreciate it and feel it will be an immense help in my job search and resume formulation. Emerald Reese 107 days ago. Thank you for the advice. Right now I am revamping my resume and trying to stanford short essay avoid paying for the service. Jennifer J. Capri 138 days ago. Thank you so much for all the information!
I will be graduating with my MSW in 3 short months and doctor essay 101, it's about time to start job searching so I am starting to update my resume and this has been so helpful! It has been much appreciated. Kelly 154 days ago. This article was so helpful in tweaking my resume. Dana 181 days ago. I would have made all the essay stadium pal listed mistakes, if I hadn't read this article. Thank you so very much for sharing this knowledge. Amy 197 days ago.
Many thanks for the information! Always nice to find job information specific to the human service/social work field! Michael 237 days ago. Featured Jobs at. Copyright 2017 White Hat Communications.
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essay of blackmail The Crime of Blackmail: A Libertarian Critique. There is something deeply paradoxical about laws that criminalize blackmail. How is it that, as Glanville Williams put it, two things that taken separately are moral and legal whites together make a moral and legal black?  For the crime of blackmail involves the criminalization of two otherwise legal acts when they occur in combination- for example, the threat to disclose damaging information about another, and the offer to refrain from disclosing it for doctor essay 101, some valuable consideration. Were Alfred to (threaten to) disclose damaging information concerning Bi11's extramarital affairs, no offense recognized by law would be involved (even if there were something distasteful about such gossip); were Alfred to ask Bill for $5000, again there would be no contravention of any proper law (even if it displayed a degree of chutzpah). But were Alfred to threaten Bill that he would disclose information concerning Bill's extramarital affairs unless Bill paid him $5000, his two-part act would – under current laws-constitute the crime of blackmail. Why should the conjunction of such otherwise legal acts have an entirely different legal status?  The paradox is essay on failure of democracy heightened when we consider the reverse situation. Bill learns that Alfred is in possession of student doctor damaging information concerning him. Essay A Question. He seeks Alfred out, and offers him $5000 to keep silent. If Alfred accepts Bill's offer, and subsequently keeps mum, he should not be held to have blackmailed Bill.
Why should the situation be different when Alfred approaches Bill, and tells him that his silence will cost $5000? This is the heart of the libertarian critique of blackmail laws, and in student essay 101, this essay I propose to defend that critique against a number of arguments that have been advanced to justify them. Essay Of Democracy In Pakistan. Although my critique of such laws depends ultimately on my belief that criminal prohibitions are justified only when some material threat is student essay 101 posed to domyessay another (by means of force, fraud, or theft), my arguments here will show that various attempts to avoid or account for the paradox do not succeed, even on student doctor essay 101, their own terms. Blackmail (along with other victimless crimes) should be decriminalized. [3,4] Some Definitional Preliminaries. Although standard instances of blackmail involve a threat to disclose damaging information if some monetary payment is not made, the range of possibilities is somewhat wider. On Failure Of Democracy. Leo Katz, for essay, example, suggests as alternative threats:
Pay me $10,000- or I will: cause some really bad blood at the next faculty meeting, . . . seduce your fianc, . Short Essay. . Essay 101. . persuade your son that it is domyessay his patriotic duty to volunteer for combat in doctor 101, Vietnam, . . Sedaris. . give your high-spirited, risk-addicted 19-year-old daughter a motorcycle for Christmas, hasten our father's death by leaving the 101, Catholic church.  Demands as well as threats may vary: usually it is for david pal, money, but it could also be for sexual favors or some other valued consideration. 101. And usually it is for the blackmailer's private and undeserved gain, though it need not be. Imagine, writes Eric Mack, that you can deter a factory owner from (safely) burning his plant to the ground (and thus thoroughly eliminating many employment opportunities) for the sake of destructive glee only by threatening to domyessay reveal his secrets. Essay. Or imagine a case in which one party, by legally permissible trickery and Underhanded dealing, acquired what another party truly deserves. Wouldn’t it be perfectly moral for the morally deserving party to blackmail the domyessay, first party into transferring that valued good- especially if what was threatened was precisely the [revelation] of the trickery and underhandedness?  In this essay, however, our concern will be largely with paradigmatic informational blackmail in which money is sought for silence. Blackmail should not be confused with extortion. In the latter, a threat to essay 101 do something that would otherwise be illegal is made in sedaris essay stadium, demanding something from another: If Charles threatens to break David's knees or burn down his house if David does not give him $5000, Charles is guilty of extortion, not blackmail, Extortion is properly considered illegal. Is There Really a Paradox of Blackmail? One might argue that there is nothing particularly paradoxical about blackmail.
George Fletcher, for one, claims that the supposed paradox is not untypical of many acts that are regarded as criminal: many good acts are corrupted by doing them for essay, a price.  Fletcher instances bribery, prostitution, and payment for confessing to essay a crime. And Wendy Gordon notes that, our right to vote can neither be transferred gratuitously nor sold.  But are these plausible counter instances? The problem with bribery is that it fosters inappropriate motivations in those who are otherwise duty-bound to provide certain services. Were bribes no more than tips for services- openly given and received- there would be nothing wrong with them. What makes bribery problematic is not the conjunction of service and money, but the fact that money given secretly becomes an student 101 incentive to essay forgo duty and/or to student essay do it only when more is giver than one is contractually obliged to on failure of democracy in pakistan accept. Prostitution is a classic victimless crime and should not have been criminalized in essay, the first place. The problem with paid-for confessions is transition essay that needy people- and not necessarily guilty people- will be induced into confessing to offenses, with no guarantee that those who are convicted will be those who have offended. An offender may still be on the loose, and those paid to student 101 apprehend criminals will have no incentive to look for short essay, him. As for the right to vote, it could have been otherwise. Student Essay 101. The only reason that political votes (unlike votes in publicly traded corporations) cannot be sold is that a majority has agreed not to commodify them.
Blackmail and Other Commercial Transactions. At first blush, blackmail is like any other commercial transaction: Alfred has a product to sell (secrecy) that Bill wishes to buy. However, some writers have claimed that blackmailers differ significantly from other sellers since, unlike other sellers, they would give away their product were they not able to sell it.  Perhaps so, perhaps not!  In any case it is not easy to essay on failure in pakistan see any significance to the difference. For other sellers, perhaps, the student doctor essay, product to short essay be sold represents all investment on their part, and therefore something they would be unlikely to give away, whereas the incriminating information that the blackmailer possesses is much more likely to have been gained without significant investment. May be the difference lies in motivation, Wendy Gordon suggests that blackmail should be outlawed because the student doctor essay, blackmailer acquires information for the sole purpose of obtaining money or advantage from the victim, and . . , has no intent or desire to publish the david essay stadium, information, except as an instrument toward this purpose.  But why should the doctor, blackmailer's intent be of any interest to can you essay with a question the law unless the conduct in question has independently infringed another's rights? It is not generally of legal concern why we conform our behavior to what the law allows or requires. Intent only becomes an issue once the law is student 101 broken. But since Alfred's disclosure of Bill's infidelities does not constitute conduct of a kind the law would ordinarily prohibit, it should not be of any legal interest to know why Alfred may or may not choose to disclose the information he has about domyessay, Bill.  Scott Altman suggests a further difference: whereas in ordinary commercial transaction, both buyer and student 101 seller will be beneficiaries, in blackmail the primary beneficiary is the blackmailer.  But why should the person who buys silence not also be seen as benefiting from the transaction? He has purchased another's silence, something that presumably, benefits him. It is true that, antecedent to the blackmailer's approach, the blackmailee was not seeking to purchase the silence of others, but that was because he believed that his secret was safe, and david sedaris stadium pal did not need to be secured through purchase.
Blackmail and Coercion. Defenders of student doctor 101 laws against blackmail often claim that blackmail is coercive: by threatening to disclose certain damaging information if Bill does not pay $5000, Alfred coerces Bill.  Or so it is said. However, the idea of coercion cannot clearly be extended to david such cases. Student Doctor Essay. In paradigm cases, Alfred coerces Bill into parting with $5000 if he tackles Bill and steals his wallet containing $5000, or if he puts a gun to Bill's head and threatens to domyessay pull the trigger should Bill refuse to student 101 hand over $5000. But if Alfred simply tells Bill that he will disclose his extramarital affairs unless Bill pays $5000, nothing is threatened except Bill's reputation. Start An Argumentative Essay With A Question. And one's reputation is not something one owns as one might own one's body or a piece of property. Student Doctor Essay 101. Reputation is a form of social recognition to which one does not have a right as one might have a right to one’s property  Should Alfred spread the information without making any claim for money, he will have done nothing illegal. Why should it become illegal just because Alfred tells Bill that he will keep quiet if Bill pays him $5000? Perhaps the african literature, argument from doctor essay coercion can be expressed as follows: The blackmailer's act is coercive because he proposes to reveal information that he is obligated not to disclose.  But this will not do either. Even if Alfred were obligated not to reveal the information, it would still not show the threat to can you start an argumentative essay reveal it to be blackmail; rather, it would be a coercive threat, for example, extortion. It would indeed be legally wrong for doctor, Alfred to reveal what he told Bill in confidence, but the threat to disclose it unless Bill pays Alfred to keep quiet would be a legal wrong not because it is blackmail, but because it breached Alfred's contractual obligation to Bill.
But if there is no obligation for Bill to keep the damaging information to himself, then and american only then would there be no coercion involved in making it known, Should Alfred accidentally find out about Bill's extramarital affairs, he is student essay under no obligation at all regarding its disclosure.  Why, then, should his informing Bill that he will reveal what Bill has been up to be coercive? Maybe the domyessay, argument is that Alfred acts coercively because he seeks to exact Bill's money without his consent.  Although no literal gun is student 101 being pointed at Bill's head, something else is- serious damage to his life, reputation, job prospects, or whatever- should he refuse to pay. This account, of course, would not work with cases in which Bill, on domyessay, hearing that Alfred possesses (and is likely to reveal) the information, seeks him out to offer him hush money, but perhaps the supporter of blackmail laws may not mind cutting these cases adrift from the scope of such legislation. Once again, however, we need to remind ourselves of the disanalogy with the doctor essay 101, gunman. Absent monetary considerations, if the african literature paper, gunman pulls the trigger a legally significant wrong is doctor done to his victim, whereas, if Alfred spills the beans on Bill's philandering no crime is committed. May be one could liken Alfred's act to david sedaris essay stadium that of Edward who, seeing Faye drowning, will not throw her a rope unless she agrees to pay him $5000.  This is surely exploitative of Faye's situation, but is it coercive? Were Edward to have pushed Faye into the water in the first place, there would indeed be an argument for saying that the demand for $5000 was coercive; but ex hypothesi he did not, and so, given that he does not violate a legal obligation in not throwing a rope to her, it is hardly coercive for doctor, him to demand something for his assistance. Prompts.  Bill's follies, likewise, are his own doing, and not the result of a set up by Alfred, and if Alfred has come into possession of information that could be Bill's undoing, may he not offer to withhold it on his own terms? Blackmail and Exploitation. Perhaps, as I suggested in the last paragraph, blackmail should be seen as exploitative. That is, in blackmailing Bill, Alfred takes advantage of Bill's vulnerability. Student. If so, should this justify its legal proscription?
Note, first of all, that the on failure, notion of exploitation is none-too-clear; it is, for example, used by Marxist writers to characterize ordinary capitalist labor relations: in making a profit, employers of labor are said to return to their employees less than the full value of their labor. Doctor Essay 101. Their vulnerable position (their need to eat, support families, and essay pal so forth) makes them vulnerable to such shortchanging. But even with a less expansive and student doctor essay less tendentious understanding, there is a gap between exploiting another's vulnerabilities and doing something that should be considered illegal. If George exploits Harold's generosity to domyessay get a loan, or Ivan exploits John's poor management of a rival business or even John's sudden and debilitating illness to gain a larger share of the student doctor, market or to put John out of business, neither George nor Ivan have done anything illegal, however opportunistic they may have been. So, if Alfred exploits Bill's vulnerability to make some extra money for himself, why should his act be proscribed by can you start essay a question law? Blackmail and Privacy. It might be argued that blackmailers threaten a right one has to privacy. Essay 101. There is, it may be said, certain information about oneself over which one should have control. It is an argumentative essay with one's own business, and not the essay, business of david essay stadium pal others. If it is to be given out, it is appropriately given out only if one has consented to student doctor essay 101 its being shared.
If others come by essay on failure of democracy that information accidentally or because someone with whom one has shared it has violated confidentiality, that is too bad. The third party is student essay not guilty of demographic transition essay any wrongdoing in having or sharing the student doctor 101, information. However, if the third party, realizing that one wanted to keep the information to oneself, now chooses to use it as leverage for self-enrichment then that person is violating the privacy rights of david sedaris essay stadium another no less improperly than the person who taps one's telephone or bugs one's house or looks in doctor 101, one's personal files. But there are significant differences between these various cases. The person who taps one's phone or bugs one's house or looks at one's files has undoubtedly violated one's property rights in some way- has trespassed, at least. Even private detectives are limited in what they may be permitted to stanford short essay do to obtain information. But the argument from privacy would outlaw private detectives altogether, just because they make a business of getting information that others want to keep secret.  The blackmailer need not violate any so-called privacy rights  to student doctor essay obtain his information: a sharp eye, an open ear, and a little advantageous positioning may be all that is necessary. Were the potential blackmailer simply to pass on the information to other interested parties no legal offense would be involved.
Why should that change if the blackmailer seeks to take advantage of what he knows by seeking cash for silence? Even after their so-called victims have paid up, blackmailers sometimes come looking for more. The damaging information after all, may not have passed out of their heads or hands. Demographic Transition Essay. It may therefore be argued that the only way to keep blackmailers from repeatedly approaching those who have bought their silence is to ban blackmail altogether.  But repeated attempts at student doctor, blackmail maybe prevented much more easily if blackmail is demographic essay decriminalized. All that is required is that blackmailers sign a contract with the blackmailee that stipulates the blackmailers' permanent silence in return for a payment of $X. Then, if the blackmailer breaks his agreement (something he can do even when blackmail is illegal), he can be held liable for whatever damages might be stipulated or otherwise determined by the courts. In such cases, there will be something legally wrong about repeated blackmail that does not apply to the first occasion. What is more, to outlaw blackmail in the first instance because blackmail demands may be repeated in the future is doctor essay 101 not to punish someone for a past crime done but for can you essay with, a (potential) future crime- hardly what we have in mind when we speak of criminal justice.
If this were allowed to be a general legal principle, moreover, we would have to entrench in the law the concept of preventive detention, for all members of groups statistically over student doctor 101, represented in the criminal category. In any case, the argument from repeated blackmail would hold in only a limited number of stanford essay prompts cases- those in which there was some likelihood that a further approach would be made or that the agreement would be breached. It would hardly provide a general argument against blackmail. The Consequences of Blackmail. Most who favor blackmail prohibition do so on non-consequentialist grounds. 101. They see something inherently problematic about the transaction that constitutes blackmail.
Nevertheless, perhaps to boost such arguments, they often supplement them with observations about the effects that decriminalizing blackmail would probably have. Richard Epstein, for example, suggests that were blackmail to be legalized, it would encourage the formation of corporations such as his hypothetical Blackmail, Inc., an american literature paper organization devoted to ferreting out embarrassing (or worse) information on doctor 101, people and then blackmailing them to david essay stadium pal have it kept quiet. Student Essay.  Assuming the profitability of such an enterprise, a blackmailee might find himself the transition essay, target of numerous independent approaches and, to meet the financial obligations incurred by this, might be led (or even encouraged) into committing crimes to pay for his chronic secrecy need. But are such fears well founded? Epstein does not ever show that a world without anti-blackmail laws would spawn a Blackmail, Inc. Student Doctor Essay 101. And even were it to do so, it would not provide a sufficiently strong reason to outlaw it or blackmail. The tastelessness or unseemliness of a social institution is not a sufficient reason to ban it or enterprises that exploit it. We would have as good reason to ban malicious gossip or The National Inquirer . And the social pressure that might lead a person into committing crimes to pay for secrecy would not differ substantially from the social pressure to be somebody or impress others, motivations that may be just as likely to lead people to commit crimes. 
A more limited consequentialist argument has been suggested by Jennifer Gerarda Brown.  She suggests that were blackmail in cases of incriminating information legalized, there would likely be a reduction of crime. American Research. The criminally inclined would face the real possibility that they would have to doctor 101 split the profits of their criminality or otherwise pay to cover up their crimes, and david stadium pal such costs would constitute a significant deterrent to criminal activity. Doctor Essay 101. But this is actually an argument in favor of legalizing blackmail, not prohibiting it. As we noted at the beginning, there is a real difficulty about legally differentiating payer- initiated from seller-initiated silence. If Bill learns that Alfred possesses damaging information that he might be inclined to disclose to others, and offers Alfred $5000 to keep quiet, it is hard to argue that Alfred has either coerced or exploited Bill, or that the essay, transaction should be outlawed. The awkwardness of allowing such a differentiation of cases has led some writers to develop strategies for keeping them together. Thus Scott Altman has claimed: Evidentiary and definitional problems with payer initiation can undermine any power it has to separate coercive from non-coercive transactions. Some bargains appear payer-initiated because the payer initially suggests the deal. But the payer might only essay 101 learn of the other party's intent to reveal the stanford essay, embarrassing information after that party discloses this intent in order to elicit an offer or payment.
Because this case cannot easily be distinguished from student 101 genuine payer initiation, permitting payer initiation can insulate paradigmatic blackmail cases from punishment.  Similar arguments used to be employed against all forms of euthanasia, lest it should become a cloak for murder. An Argumentative With A Question. The solution, were we to persist in outlawing seller-initiated silence, would be essentially the same: the development of procedures that would allow- for most cases- clearer discriminations to be made. But since we do not accept the student essay, arguments against blackmail laws in the first place, this rescue is unnecessary. Blackmail and Victimization.
Defenders of blackmail laws persist in calling the blackmailee a victim. Demographic Essay. Once seen as such, blackmailers are easily tarred with wrongdoing. Yet this characterization trades on the conflation of two distinct senses of victim. On one account, a victim is anyone who is damaged or harmed by some event: there are earthquake victims and victims of student essay 101 disease. Blackmailees might be seen as victims or potential victims in this sense. The information possessed by the blackmailer, if disclosed, will damage them in short essay prompts, some way. And one might argue that if one kind of damage has been averted it has been averted only at a cost, and - at a stretch - that one is a victim of circumstances that have a cost.
But the term victim may also be used in a more restricted sense - as when we speak of someone being victimized. Here we have in mind someone whose rights have been violated, someone who has been illegally wronged by another. Is the person who is blackmailed a victim in this second sense? It would seem not: if Alfred were to student 101 disclose the damaging information about Bill no right of Bill's would have been violated. That he should refrain from doing what he had a right to david stadium do in exchange for some monetary consideration does not change the matter. (29) Those who persist in speaking of doctor blackmailees as victims can mean victim only in the first sense. Yet it is essay stadium only in the second sense, that victims might have some legitimate legal claim against doctor essay others. The libertarian conviction is not simply that some instances of essay stadium blackmail should not be criminalized but that it should never be criminalized.
The libertarian therefore needs to confront some hard cases. (a) Suppose Ken tells Leon that if Leon does not pay him $1000, he will report that Leon is guilty of a crime, which he is doctor already suspected of committing. The libertarian would not forbid Ken from making this demand, or, if Leon does not pay, he would not prevent Ken from making the false report. Ken has free speech rights, including the right to speak falsely about david sedaris essay pal, another. True, the police-and courts-may subsequently accept Ken's word about Leon, so that Leon is unjustly punished, but if they do that, that injustice is on them for failing thoroughly to student essay 101 investigate Ken's report. As noted above, any damage to american Leon 's reputation is not damage to something over which Leon has any rights. Student Doctor 101. (30) While the foregoing is perfectly compatible with libertarian theorizing, it will strike many as repugnant.
After all, the law underlies the social order, even our very civilization. If one may with impunity place a spoke in sedaris essay stadium, the whee1 of justice in this manner, it bespeaks ill of the libertarian philosophy. But there is a solution to this quandary, even apart from the radical substitution of libertarian for statist courts. Student Essay. (31) And that is to david sedaris essay pal pay or tie up witnesses so that they are contractually obligated to tell the truth upon pain of contract violation. One of the great injustices of our present court system is essay 101 that witnesses are in effected drafted into testifying, and, so, for that matter, are jurors. It would be legally illicit to bear false witness under such circumstances. Stanford Short Essay. But, contrary to Altman, the doctor essay 101, impropriety would then be one of extortion, or contract violation, not blackmail. b) What if Michael learns that Nicholas has embezzled $l million from his company, but suggests to Nicholas that for literature research paper, a payment of $56,000 he will not report it?
Surely, one might argue, Michael has a duty to report what Nicholas has done, and any attempt to profit from an agreement not to reveal it should be criminalized. Although some libertarians might balk at essay 101, cases of stanford essay prompts this kind, it is certainly open to others - myself included - to argue that whatever moral duty might be claimed to report the crimes of another (and not to profit from essay them), nevertheless there is no basis for legally requiring that the stanford short essay prompts, crimes of another should be reported. Such positive duties- like the positive duty to be a good Samaritan- has no place in criminal law. Blackmail laws are often taken for granted. Indeed, such is the moral objecctionableness of blackmail in many people's minds that they cannot imagine how the decriminalization of blackmail could possibly be supported.
But, like many other practices considered morally and socially objectionable, their objectionableness does not immediately or easily translate into a matter for the criminal law. It has been my contention that this is true of blackmail. As the paradox of essay blackmail should have alerted us, there's indeed something deeply problematic about criminalizing an act that conjoins two other acts that, in themselves, are not criminal. * Walter Block, author of domyessay Defending the Undefendable , is Professor of Economics at essay 101, the University of Central Arkansas , Conway , Arkansas . Essay. Email: email@example.com . The author wishes to thank John Kleinig for his editorial support, which far surpassed the ordinary call of student doctor 101 editorial duty. 1. Sedaris Stadium Pal. Williams, Blackmail ,  CRIM. L. REV. 79, at 101, 163 (1954). It was Williams who originally spoke of the paradox of blackmail.
The morality of the constituent acts is, perhaps less clear than their legality. But my concern here is with the justification of blackmail's criminalization not with its morality per se. 2. It might be claimed that using the example of extramarital affairs- though typical -unfairly prejudices the case in favor the on failure of democracy in pakistan, opponent of blackmail. Many would feel that the doctor essay 101, philanderer deserved what was coning to him- whether it was blackmail or exposure. If the domyessay, information were of a different but still mortifying kind - disclosure that a bank executive always took a rubber duckie into his bath, or wet his bed, or had a black/Jewish grandmother- would we feel as sanguine about the blackmailers opportunism? Perhaps not, but this would not show that the blackmailer should be punished for seeking to get something in student doctor 101, return for stadium pal, silence. 3. Doctor Essay 101. Authors offering arguments in favor of the present prohibition of blackmail are numerous. They include: Alldridge, Attempted Murder of the Soul : Blackmail, Privacy and Secrets . Domyessay. 13 OXFORD J. LEGAL STUD. 363 (1993); Altman, A Patchwork Theory of doctor Blackmail , 141 U. PA. L. Sedaris Essay Stadium. REV.
1639 (1993); Becker, The Case Against Blackmail, unpublished MS (1985); Berman, The Evidentiary Theory of Blackmail: Taking Motives Seriously, 65 U. CHI. Doctor Essay 101. L. REV. 795 (1998); Boyle, A Theory of Law and start an argumentative Information . Copyright, Spleens , Blackmail, and Insider Trading, 80 CALIF. L. REV. 1413 (1992); Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , 141 U. PA.
L. REV. 1935 (1993); Campbell, Why Blackmail Should be Criminalized: A Reply to Walter Block and David Gordon, 21 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. Student Doctor. REV. 883 (1933); Campbell, The Anomalies of Blackmail , 55 LEGAL Q. Rev. 382(1939); Coase, The 1987 McCorkle Lecture: Blackmail , 74 VA. L. REV., 655 (1988); Daly Giertz, Externalities, Extortion, and research paper Efficiency; Reply, 68 AM. ECON. REV.
736 (1978); DeLong, Blackmailers, Bribe Takers, and the Second Paradox , 141 U. P.A, L. REV. 1663 (1993); Ellsherg, The Theory and Practice of Blackmail, in BARGANING: FORMAL THEORY OF NEGOTIATION 343 (O.R. Young, ed. 1975); Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., 50 U. CHI. L. REV., 553 (1983); Evans, Why Blackmail Should be Banned , 65 PHIL. 89 (1990); Feinberg, The Paradox of Blackmail , 1 RATIO JURIS 83 (1988); J. FEINBERG, HARMLESS WRONGDOING (1990); Fletcher, Blackmail . The Paradigmatic Case, 141 U. PA. Essay. L. REV. Can You An Argumentative Essay With. 1617 (1993); C. FRIED, CONTRACT AS PROMISE 102 (1981); Ginsburg Shechtman, Blackmail: An Economic Analysis of the Law , 141 U. PA.
L. REV. 1849 (1993); Goodhart, Blackmail and Consideration in Contracts , 44 LEGAL Q. Student Doctor Essay 101. REV. 436 (1928), repr. in A.L. GOODHART, ESSAYS IN JURISPRUDENCE AND THE COMMON LAW 175 (1931); Gordon, Truth and Consequences : The Force of Blackmail's Central Case, 141 U. PA. L. REV. l74l (1993); Gory, Nozick’s Argument Against Blackmail , 58 PERSONALIST 187 (1977); Gorr, Liberalism and the Paradox of Blackmail , 21 PHIL. PUB. AFF. 43 (1992); Haksar, Coercive Proposals, 4 POL.
THEORY, 65 (1976); Hale, Bargaining, Duress, and Economic Liberty , 43 COLUM. Demographic Essay. L. Rev. 603 (1943); Hale, Coercion and Distribution in a Supposedly Non-Coercive State , 38 POL. SCI. Student Essay 101. Q. 470 (1923); Hardin, Blackmailing for Mutual Good 141 U. PA.L.
Rev. 1787 (1993); M. HEPWORTH, BLACKMAIL: PUBLICITY AND SECRECY IN EVERYDAY LIFE 29-40 (1975); Isenbergh, Blackmail from demographic transition A to C , 141 U. PA. L. Student Doctor Essay 101. REV. 1905 (l993); Jandoo Harland, Legally Aided Blackmail , 27 NEW L. Domyessay. J. 402 (1984); Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm Twisting , 141 U. PA. Student Doctor Essay 101. L REW.
1567 (1993); Katz Lindgren, Instead of a Preface , 141 U. PA. L. David Essay Stadium Pal. REV. 1565 (1993); Landes Posner, The Private Enforcement of Law, 4 J. LEGAL. Student. STUD. 1 (1975); Lindgren, Unraveling the transition, Paradox of student doctor essay Blackmail , 84 COLUM. L. REV. 670 (1984) Lindgren, More Blackmail Ink; a Critique of Blackmail Inc ., Epstein's Theory of Blackmail 16 COLUM. L. Essay On Failure Of Democracy. REV. Student Essay. 909 (1984) Lindgren, In Defense of Keeping Blackmail A Crimes: Responding to Block and Gordon, 20 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. REV.
35 (1986); Lindgren, Blackmail; On Waste, Morals and Ronald Coase 36 U.C.L.A. L. REV. 597 (1989); Lindgren, Kept in on failure of democracy in pakistan, the Dark; Owen's View of Blackmail, 21 CONN. L. REV. 749 (1989); Lindgren, Secret Rights: A Comment on Campbell's Theory of Blackmail , 21 CONN. L. Doctor. REV. 407 (1989); Lindgren, Blackmail: An Afterword , 141 U. PA. David Essay Stadium Pal. L. Student. REV. 1975 (1993); Lindgren, The Theory, History and Practice of the Bribery-Extortion Distinction , 141, U. PA. L. Domyessay. REV. 1695 (1993); Lyons, Welcome Threats and Coercive Offers , 50 PHIL.
425 (l975); Murphy, Blackmail; A Preliminary Inquiry, 63 MONIST 156 (1980); R. NOZICK, ANACHY, STATE, AND UTOPIA (1974); Owens, Should Blackmail be Banned ?, 63 PHIL. 501 (l979); R.A. POSNER, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW (4th ed. 1992); Posner, Blackmail, Privacy and Freedom of Contract, 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1817 (1993); Shavell, An Economic Analysis of Threats and Their Legality: Blackmail, Extortion and Robbery , 141 U. Student Doctor Essay. PA L. Can You Essay With A Question. REV. 1877 (1993); Tooher, Developments in the Law of student doctor essay 101 Blackmail in England and essay pal Australia , 27 INT.
COMP. Essay 101. L. Q., 337 (1978); Waldron, Blackmail as Complicity , unpublished MS (1992); Williams, Blackmail, supra n.1; Winder, The Development of Blackmail , 5 MODERN L. REV. 21 (1941). 4. In contrast, here is the of democracy, libertarian case for the repeal of student essay laws prohibiting blackmail: Mack, In Defense of Blackmail, 41 PHIL. Literature. STUD. 273 (1982); M.N. R0THBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY (1998); M.N. ROTHBARD, MAN, ECONOMY AND STATE 443 n. 49 (1993); Block , The Blackmailer as Hero , THE LIBERTARIAN FORUM 1 (Dec. 1972); W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE 44-49 (1976; 1991); Block Gordon, Extortion and the Exercise of Free Speech Rights; A Reply to Professors Posner, Epstein, Nozick and Lindgren , 19 LOYALAS OF LOS ANGELES.
REV. 37(1985); Block, Trading Money for Silence, 8 U. HAWAII L. REV. 57(1986); Block, The Case for De-Criminalizing Blackmail: A Reply to Lindgren and Campbell , 24 WESTERN STATE U. L.REV. 225 (1997); Block, A Libertarian Theory of Blackmail , 33 IRISH JURIST 280 (1998); Block McGee, Blackmail from A to Z , 50 MERCER L. REV. 569 (1999); Block, Towards a Libertarian Theory of Blackmail , J. LIBERTARIAN STUD. (forthcoming); Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime , 31 BRACTON L. J. Essay. 24 (1999); Block, Kinsella, Hoppe, The Second Paradox of Blackmail , Q, J. BUS. ETHICS, (forthcoming); Block, Let's Legalize Blackmail , SETON HALL L. Rev (forthcoming); Block, Blackmailing For Mutual Good VERMONT L. REV. (forthcoming); Block Anderson, Posner on Blackmail; A Critique (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail and Economic Analysis , THOMAS JEFFERSON. REV. (forthcoming); Block, Threats, Blackmail, Extortion, Robbery and Other Bad Things TULSA L. REV. (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail is essay of democracy Private Justice , U. BRIT. COLUM. L. REV. (forthcoming).
5. Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm Twisting , supra n. 3, at student doctor, 1567-68. Sometimes the threat may take the form of an african american paper offer- though of a form that Hillel Steiner refers to as a throffer- in which failure to take it up is associated with threatened consequences. Student Essay 101. See Steiner, Individual Liberty , 75 ARISTOTELIAN SOC’Y PROC. 33, at 39 (1974-75). 6. Mack, In Defense of domyessay Blackmail , supra n. 4, at student essay 101, 277. David. To counter the response that these are cases in student, which the blackmailees are being blackmailed only into not doing something, Mack suggests that the factory owner might be blackmailed into demographic essay, donating money for Cambodian relief (278).
7. Fletcher, Blackmail; The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. 3. 8. Gordon, Truth and student Consequences , supra n. 3, at start a question, 1744. 9. See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1640. 10. Restaurants and student supermarkets often donate day old food to the poor. 11. Essay Of Democracy. Gordon, Truth and Consequences , supra n. 3, at 1746. Mack's counter-examples (supra n. Student. 6) cast some doubt on the generality of african research paper this claim.
12. In actual fact, a blackmailer's motives might be much more complicated. Although taking monetary advantage of a situation may well be one consideration, moral umbrage might also figure, along with, say, a more remote desire to obtain money to pay for a sick child's operation. Student Doctor Essay. Gordon's characterization of the blackmailer's intent might- in certain cases, at least-apply equally to many other currently legal commercial ventures, which people may undertake. 13. Altman, A Patchwork Theory of demographic Blackmail , supra n. Student Doctor Essay 101. 3, at 1641. 14.
The simple fact of a threat is not sufficient to make the act coercive (and hence illegitimate). If I threaten to sue you for the damage you have caused to my car, unless you pay for its repair, my threat constitutes no illegitimate coercion. Should it be argued that some threats one has a right to make (as in the latter case) whereas others one has no right to make (as in blackmail), the domyessay, libertarian will reply that this begs the question: Why should Alfred not threaten to reveal Bill's extra-marital affairs unless some payment is made? 15. Should it be objected that the destruction of reputation by student doctor essay means of disclosure of information about one does constitute a violation of rights (as is sometimes allowed by laws against libel and defamation), the libertarian will respond that the question is stanford prompts begged. A libertarian would not agree to the enforceable securing of reputation against damaging information. On this see W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, Supra n.4, at student essay, 59-62; M. ROTHBARD, ETHICS OF LIBERTY, supra n. 4, at 121-22. 16. African American Literature Research. For this argument, see Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at student doctor essay 101, 1642, fn. Domyessay. 11.
For a rejoinder, see Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime supra n. 4, text at note 23. 17. That may be too strong: perhaps there is a moral or religious obligation not to gossip about others. And perhaps what is private does not change its status as a result of becoming known to essay another. But there is no enforceable legal obligation not to pass on the information that has come into one’s possession. 18. Katz, Blackmail and essay of democracy Other Forms of Arm-Twisting , supra n. 3, at 1599. 19. See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra p. 3, at doctor, 1643. 20. I am, of course, assuming that there is no Good Samaritan law requiring that assistance be given.
Were there such a law, a libertarian would of course oppose it. 21. That surely goes for literature research, investigative reporters, newshounds, and essay 101 gossip columnists as well. They also profit from information that others would prefer to keep secret. 22. Libertarians reject privacy rights that are not reducible to essay property rights- rights not to doctor essay 101 have one's property bugged or phone tapped.
See M. Short. ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY, Supra 4, at student doctor 101, 121-22. 23. Although some jurisdictions do recognize torts for violation of privacy, libertarians are opposed to african literature research paper such constraints, because such torts must allow -what I challenge- that people can have property rights in 101, their reputation. 24. African Research. See e.g., Fletcher, Blackmail: The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. 3, at 1623, 1627. See also Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1648. Fletcher sees the student doctor essay 101, possibility of the short, blackmailer's coming back for more as constituting a permanent domination of the blackmailer over the blackmailee. But that is student doctor 101 only if no contract is made between the blackmailer and blackmailee forbidding any further claims. 25.
Richard Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., supra n. 3. 26. For an essay extended discussion, see Block Gordon, Extortion and the Exercise of Free Speech Rights , supra n. 4. 27. Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , supra n. 101. 3. 28. Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1649. 29. Indeed, one might be inclined to argue that the blackmailer displays a kind of decency toward the blackmailee by offering him a way out of his predicament (the blackmailer's opportunity to damage the potential blackmailee by disclosing- as he has a right to do- the information he has on him).
The gossip provides no such injury-averting option. See Block Gordon, Blackmail, Extortion and essay of democracy in pakistan Free Speech , supra n. 4, at 39: In contrast to the gossip, who tells the student doctor essay, secret without even affording the victim the opportunity of purchasing silence, the blackmailer can be seen as a benefactor. 30. See W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, supra p. 4, at 59-62; also, M. ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY supra n. 4, at l26-27. 31. African Paper. On this see M. ROTHBARD, FOR A NEW LIBERTY (1973)
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