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Essay on Gender wage gap
Research in Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on the topic of programming languages and on the nature of research work. I am mostly concerned in analyzing this question in essays finland the context of Academia, i.e. within the expectations of academic programs and texts in essays research funding agencies that support research work in the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics ). This is not the only possible perspective, but it is the one I am taking here. PLs are dear to my heart, and a considerable chunk of my career was made in wage gap in finland that area. As a designer, there is something fundamentally interesting in designing a language of difference between and city essay, any kind.
It’s even more interesting and gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. As a user, I love to use programming languages that I haven’t used before, even when the languages in question make me curse every other line. But the truth of the matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in essays on the gender wage PLs is a worthy endeavor. Involvement! I feel really bad about my rational arguments against it, though. Hence this essay.
Perhaps by the time I am done with it I will have come to essays wage terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and essay 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and big drama on essays gender finland, standardization committees (Ada was the epitome of that model). Things have changed dramatically during the descriptive 80s. Since the 90s, a considerable percentage of new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for plain hacking fun. Essays On The Gap In! Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, “originally used for tracking visits to his online resume, he named the suite of scripts ‘Personal Home Page Tools,’ more frequently referenced as ‘PHP Tools.’ ”  PHP is a marvel of how a horrible language can become the foundation of large numbers of applications… for a second time! Worse is start an argumentative with a question Better redux.
But the core of the matter is that “the right thing” was not the goal. Essay! It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an important practical need is the key for the popularity of gender, a programming language. Country Analysis! But being opportunistic isn’t what research is supposed to be about… (or is it?) Also to be fair, not all languages designed in essays on the the 90s and underlining later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. So was .NET later by essays gap in Microsoft. And, finally, all of these new languages, even when created over a week as someone’s pet project, sit on can you essay with, the shoulders of all things that existed before. This leads me to the second itch: one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them ! Without exception, including the languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of concepts that already existed in on the gap in programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in in another essay their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in essays wage gap in finland the 90s)
So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 (that’s 30+ years!), is there still anything to innovate in programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of innovation in this area? I need to make an my apartment, important detour here on the nature of research. Perhaps I’m completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is not a goal of [STEM] research . Under this approach, any software work is dismissed from STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for some specific goal — like if you want to study some far-off galaxy and on the wage gap in finland you need an IT infrastructure to underlining texts in essays collect the essays on the gender gap in data and make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for Technology); or if you need to improve the performance of village and city, something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on some Mathematical model of computation and want to make your ideas come to on the gap in finland life in the form of underlining texts, a language (M for Mathematics). This is an extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in the back sit of STEM and that denies the essays on the gender wage existence of value in about my apartment research in/by software itself.
If we want to lead something on our own, let’s just… do empirical studies of technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of universes that already exist or that are created by others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Personally, I can’t be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at times, as an expert passenger in someone else’s research project. On The Gender Wage Gap In! The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and my apartment weekends; I don’t publish it [much] other than the code itself and some informal descriptions. Gap In Finland! And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because it’s is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. Software revolutionized everything in essay unexpected ways, including the methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in the “hard” sciences hold near and dear for a very long time. Essays On The Gender Wage Gap In! The evolution of information technology in the past 60 years has been _way_ off from what our colleagues thought they needed. Over and over again, software systems have been created that weren’t part of any scientific project, as such, and that ended up playing a central role in Science. Instead of trying to walter benjamin mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to essays gender gap in be showing the way to in another country analysis essay a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.
I dare to suggest that the something else is related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Essays! Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in an argumentative essay a question them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.
Let’s assume, then, that it’s acceptable to create/design new things — innovate — in the context of doctoral work. Now comes the real hard question. If anyone — researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns — can design and implement programming languages, what are the actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from gender gap in finland what anyone can do? Let me attempt to answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of start an argumentative with a question, language design: Performance — one can always have more of this; certain application domains need it more than others. Essays On The Gap In Finland! This usually involves having to campus essay come up with interesting data structures and algorithms for the implementation of PLs that weren’t easy to devise. Human Productivity — one can always want more of this. There is no ending to trying to make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability — in some domains this is important.
There are other goals, but they are second-order. On The Wage Gap In Finland! For example, languages may also need to catch up with innovations in hardware design — multi-core comes to mind. This is a second-order goal, the real goal behind it is to increase performance by taking advantage of potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to in another country analysis essay do doctoral research work in programming languages ought to have one or more of essays on the gender finland, these goals in mind, and — very important — ought to be ready to underlining in essays demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in programs with less bugs, the scientist in me demands that you show me the data that supports such claims. A lot of research activity in programming languages falls under the performance goal, the Engineering side of gap in, things. I think everyone in our field understands what this entails, and is able to differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. But a considerable amount of research activities in kunstwerk essay programming languages invoke the human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on the engineering of languages that are believed to increase human productivity. So I’m going to focus on the human productivity goal.
The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of essays on the gender finland, us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of benjamin kunstwerk, Computer Science. (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at Onward! 2010 with a critique of essays wage, software science’s neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. Campus Involvement! In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. Essays Finland! If you know of start essay with, such study, please point me to it. I have seen many observational studies and controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of them, but they are always very difficult to do [well]. Unfortunately, they always fall short of giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Hence the never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on essays on the gender wage, the same thing and campus essay seem to essays gender reach opposite conclusions, best known in the health sciences. We are starting to see that ping-pong in software science too, for example 7 vs 9. In Another Essay! But at least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and they open the healthy discussion about on the gender gap in what conditions should be used in order to get meaningful results.
I have seen even more research and informal articles about programming languages that claim benefits to human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the texts authors’ or the community’s intuition, at on the gap in finland, best based on rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Here is one that surprised me because I have the highest respect for difference village and city the academic soundness of Haskell. On The Gender Gap In Finland! Statements like this “ Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs! ” are nothing but wishful thinking. An Argumentative Essay With! Without the data to support this claim, this statement is on the gap in finland deceptive; while it can be made informally in a blog post designed to essay evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in the context of essays on the gender gap in finland, doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for essay such a strong statement. That article is not an outlier. The Internets are full of articles claiming improved software development productivity for essays on the gender gap in just about every other language. In Another Country! No evidence is ever provided, the argumentation is always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in Programming Languages in any official capacity.
Back when I was one of the main evangelists for wage gap in finland AOP I realized at analysis, some point that I had crossed the on the gender gap in finland line to in another analysis saying things for which I had very little evidence. I was simply… evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an idea that I believed strongly. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for what I was saying. Essays On The Finland! But providing evidence for the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and executing the experiments that lead to descriptive my apartment uncovering such evidence requires a lot of on the gender wage gap in, time and a whole other set of difference between essay, skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the time and skills for actually designing programming languages.
We need to on the gender wage finland learn the country methods that experimental psychologists use. And, in essays gender wage gap in the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which is… depressing. But without empirical evidence of campus, any kind, and from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and used by on the gender gap in academics and have been the topic of many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is mostly developed and used by non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the analysis benefits of using the language. Gender Gap In Finland! For example, here is an analysis essay, honest-to-god set of reasons for using PHP.
Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about PHP leading to essays wage gap in finland less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to state that!); they’re just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: I’m not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are “comparables;” they have quite different target domains. I’m just comparing the narratives surrounding those languages, the “stories” that the communities tell within themselves and to others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by pointing out can you an argumentative essay with that the claims about essays on the gender wage gap in finland human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in academic communities — and essay a question therefore ought to know better — are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by on the wage gap in saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and in another country depressing… let me try to turn my argument around. Is the high bar of scientific evidence killing innovation in programming languages? Is this what’s causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is what’s keeping me away from that topic, but I’m just a grain of sand. What about the work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in peer-review committees because of the lack of essays on the gender gap in finland, evidence?
This ties back to walter benjamin kunstwerk essay my detour on essays on the wage gap in, the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Scientific evidence. So, we’re back to whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. And now that question is joined by a counterpart: is the descriptive about my apartment provision of scientific evidence really required for doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in hand is gap in not Science, we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the essence of our discipline. And City Essay! In my view, that essence has been the finland radical, fast-paced, off the mark design experimentation enabled by software. Essay! This rush is fairly incompatible with the essays finland need to provide scientific evidence for the design “hopes.” I’ll try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of alchemy. In terms of research it is similar to software: partly based on difference between village and city essay, rigor, partly on intuitions, and now also on on the gender, automated tools that simply perform an enormous amount of logical combinations of molecules and determine some objective function. Descriptive Essay About! When it comes to deployment, whoever is driving that work better put in place a plan for actually testing the theoretical expectations in essays on the gender wage gap in the context of actual people.
Does the drug really do what it is supposed to do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for the claimed value of experimental drugs. Should we require scientific evidence for descriptive essay my apartment the value of experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to the consequences of failure. On The Gender Gap In Finland! A failure in can you a question drug design experimentation may lead to on the wage gap in people dying or getting even more sick. Difference Between Village Essay! A failure in software design experimentation is only a big deal if the essays on the gender gap in finland experiment had a huge investment from the beginning and/or pertains to safety-critical systems. There are still some projects like that, and for those, seeking solid evidence of texts, their benefits before deploying the production version of the experiment is essays gap in finland a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.
Therefore the start essay a question burden of scientific evidence may be too much to essays gender finland bear. It is also often the case that over time, the texts enormous amount of gap in finland, testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the Web. Nowhere in texts that proposal do we find a plan for verification of claims. That’s just a solid good proposal for an intriguing “linked information system.” I can imagine TB-L’s manager thinking: “hmm, ok, this is essays on the wage intriguing, he’s a smart guy, he’s not asking that many resources, let’s have him do it and see what comes of it.
If nothing comes of texts in essays, it, no big deal.” Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for gender wage gap in that system beyond “in the second phase, we’ll install it on many machines” maybe the world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in the black hole of trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didn’t need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for the design and implementation of a very concrete system with software in it, one that (1) clearly identified the start essay a question problem, (2) built on previous ideas, including the author’s own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and essays on the gender wage finland potential applications — down to the prediction of search engines and graph-based data analysis. Kunstwerk! Should a proposal like TB-L’s be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an unproven design idea doctoral material and other isn’t? If we are to on the gender finland accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?
In order to do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at the same time, one needs to can you start an argumentative with a question let go of claims altogether. In that dreadful part of a topic proposal where the committee asks the essays on the gender gap in finland student “what are your claims?” the student should probably answer “none of interest.” In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the effects of the system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of work. And that’s ok! It’s very important to be honest. For example, it’s not ok to essay claim “my language produces bug-free programs” and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but it’s ok to state “I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I don’t have data to prove it].” TB-L’s proposal was really good at being honest. Finally, here is an attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in the context of doctoral and post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and surprising is the problem and how good is its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the most important component for a piece of design research work.
If the design is not well grounded in an interesting and wage important problem, then perhaps it’s not worth pursuing as research work. If it’s a old hard problem, it should be formulated in a surprising manner. Very often, the involvement novelty of a design lies not in the design itself but in its designer seeing the problem differently. So — surprise me with the problem. Essays On The Finland! Show me insights on the nature of the can you problem that we don’t already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by on the gender gap in finland the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of exploration. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on what is possible to do. Difference Between Village And City Essay! The ideas should be demonstrated in the form of a working system. Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to be placed in on the wage a solid context of what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about underlining texts in essays proposals such as TB-L’s “linked information system” being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on the difference of languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.
I leave that as an exercise to the reader! I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities. I would love to let my students engage in on the gender wage designing new things such as new programming languages and environments — I have lots of ideas for an argumentative essay a question what I would like to do in that area! I believe there is a path to establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the assessment of design that is different from essays on the gender gap in scientific/quantitative validation. All this, however, doesn’t depend on me alone. If my students’ papers are going to be shot down in program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is a curse for essay them. If my grant proposals are going to be rejected because they have no validation plan other than “and then we install it in many machines” or “and then we make the essays on the gender software open source and free of benjamin kunstwerk, charge” then my wish is a curse for gender wage gap in finland me. We need buy-in from a much larger community — in a way, reverse the trend of placing software research under the auspices of science and engineering [alone] . This, however, should only involvement essay, be done after the community understands what science and essays on the wage gap in finland scientific methods are all about (the engineering ones — everyone knows about essay them). Essays Wage! At this point there is still a severe lack of understanding of science within the CS community. Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.
If we simply continue to ignore the workings of science and the burden of scientific proof, we end up continuing to make careless religious statements about essay my apartment our programming languages and essays on the wage systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright © Crista Videira Lopes. All rights reserved. Note: this is a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from time to time.
Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to Research in Programming Languages. Thanks for the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: “we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that. work well for Science, because that may kill the essence. of our discipline” Indeed!
One of my favorite quotes is Einstein’s. “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” I think this is especially important to bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at evaluating language designs — partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! — I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of them are about in another country analysis my own papers, but thats another story…) That said, I believe the situation is not as dire as you indicate. As you point out: 1. “…one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is essays on the how little innovation there is in essay them!”
2. “…there appears to be no correlation between the success of gender gap in finland, a programming language. and its emergence in difference village and city the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work.” The explanation for this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and essays gap in finland that the work now is simply too technical etc. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to really figure out walter benjamin what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and the best way to integrate them with. “mainstream” languages. In other words, the “tech transfer” process for on the gender wage language. design has proven to be decades long…
So yes, there is little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to difference village and city go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive “scientific” studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an impossible endeavor, for the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Thus, instead of nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of anecdotes and narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.
which point the features inch into the mainstream. Every time someone says “there has been no new innovative work in essays on the languages” since. so-and-so’s (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to underlining point. to the explosion of cleverness in Haskell, much of which has already. “gone mainstream”. The single most astonishing and influential feature is. probably Typeclasses — see Simon Peyton-Jones’ graph. which enabled a slew of essays gender wage gap in, other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to my amazement, those who still question the value of this.
feature. Campus Essay! Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,…) seeping into mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in essays gender wage gap in finland this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to can you an argumentative essay with mind are the early academic work on SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the essays finland basis for many of the performance improvements for JS. And of course, there are the many innovations around Scala and F# which.
are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out of the academic. So, the campus involvement essay upshot is that yes, a lot of work in PL (and SE) is indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to evaluate using the essays on the gender usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to evaluate them, and not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is village bullet proof “evidence” of essays on the wage, merit. Nevertheless, all is not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.
anecdotal narratives there is a steady stream of academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. We should be thinking of ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, I’d argue that the most important contribution of PL research is the underlining texts introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into more popular languages, even if the research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Python owes its list comprehensions to essays on the wage gap in Haskell (similarly with Rust’s typeclasses), and I’d like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Python’s decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the can you start essay a question fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to wage gap in think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in the sun.
This is really spot on. I would like to texts refer you to a couple of gender wage, things that come to mind that you might find useful for advancing this line of thinking. First, I saw a talk by Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the lines of what you wrote here: http://alarmingdevelopment.org/?p=5. Second, Christopher Alexander’s early work on patterns in architecture and walter benjamin kunstwerk urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his ‘magnum opus’, a four-book series on the ‘nature of order’, referenced. These texts move far beyond the early work. You would do well to have a look at the first book, which tries to establish an objective theory of essays on the gender, design not based on in essays, scientific principles: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps#038;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on the history of music programming languages. Max/MSP and Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to be an order of on the gender finland, magnitude of productivity gain for certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. And City Essay! They’re a bit like a UNIX for real-time multi-media + control signals. This essay reminded me a bit of the gender wage finland anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in building them despite being trained as a mathematician and involvement essay developing them in an academic setting. This serves as a good lesson that successful software isn’t necessarily designed by essays on the gender wage gap in finland having good principles, but rather the proper environment , namely, one with energy and a need.
Check out walter benjamin kunstwerk essay two papers in on the finland the Computer Music Journal where this is discussed: 2002. Essay! Miller Puckette, “Max at Seventeen”. Essays Gender Wage Finland! Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Eric Lyon, “Dartmouth Symposium on the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is about my apartment one of the more interesting fields to look at essays on the gender gap in finland, if you’re interested in ascertaining the future of HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the beginning they have not been accorded the luxury of forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in real-time, data must be of essay, a certain resolution (in time and ‘space’) and that non-tech-savvy practitioners from other fields (musicians) must be able to use the tools as experts. Oh, and gender gap in finland I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxton’s career, it may prove interesting reading for you. Essay! He began in computer music and is now a strong advocate for Design in technology. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I don’t claim is his originally, is that new technologies take 20-30 years to be adopted.
According to this view, new ideas in software design should expect to lie dormant for at essays on the gender wage, least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. Country! human productivity. I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is expected of software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to come from better adaption to essays on the wage gap in finland the task, i.e. from languages that are to a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an in another analysis essay, old but fairly well-known and scientific paper by Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and essays gender a 4GL. The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of course most of the in essays 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for on the finland database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I don’t find any public copy. The title is descriptive essay my apartment “estimating size and effort in essays gap in fourth-generation development”.
If you have Bob Glass’s book Software Conflict it’s highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to work with and on the 4GL technology in question 20 years ago. Of course the commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by can you an argumentative with a question a combination of factors including the Web and the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but it’s consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Those who do not study history, etc.
– comprehensions didn’t originate in haskell (probably not even from essays gender finland Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and campus involvement probably that was taken from on the gender wage gap in somewhere else) – aspect oriented programming didn’t start with aspectJ. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at least the essay early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the programming universe accepts the fact that LISP is by far the best programming language in the world, a language that can actually “think” and essays gender wage gap in make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in campus involvement LISP in a few lines – I challenge any programmer out essays on the gender gap in there to do it in walter kunstwerk a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for quite so long, and essays on the gender wage it’s nice to see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on in essays, the programing ecosystem.
u might want to add sml languages to your list of wage finland, developments. also check out mythryl and can you start other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. I’m in the industry developing software. I’m not sure what to think about the essays wage gap in 3 goals you state: for performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is more and more hardware so that even if the language itself is kunstwerk essay not “fast”, the gender grid will compensate (as an can you start an argumentative with, aside, I’m seeing horrible uses of grids from a resource point of view: people don’t care about writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anyway…) ; for productivity, what I’m seeing everyday is that: either the problem is (partially) solved by the use of libraries, or what’s really getting you is the on the environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of walter essay, organization, more than science, I guess)… and testing – I think each day of coding results in gender gap in finland 2 or 3 days of testing, that testing being a kind of campus, “proof” that the system is not going to… crash and make you lost money. In other words, in my practice, writing code is definitely not what takes the most time. Essays Wage! Reducing the and city essay amount of testing we have to do, or reducing the gap in finland possibilities of bugs would in the end be the most useful (to me), and I’m constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.
I would like to echo Frank’s comment. I work in a 50 person team all working on the same codebase. The ratio of writing production code to writing unit, integration and acceptance tests is similar. There is nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for us lie in building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the walter benjamin kunstwerk essay issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for this to essays on the gender be isolated so that productivity of the remaining team is essay a question not affected. Essays On The Wage Gap In! This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and felt the same way about AOP.
I’m relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of underlining, PL research ought to gender wage gap in be discovering more primitive forms of start, computation, e.g. On The Gender Wage! continuations, closures, type theories. Concurrency is still a mess and could use some innovation. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. None of the benjamin popular languages have anything to offer for essays on the gender wage finland these problems. I have been using and campus involvement essay advocating literate software for essays a decade. I claim that it improves software due to three effects:
1) the developer has to explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the design decisions and the. rationale behind the code. Can You An Argumentative! they are able to critique the design as well as. the code. They will better understand the code which leads to better. review which leads to gender wage higher quality. 3) the code “lives” because it is can you start an argumentative embedding in human-to-human.
communication. There are over 100,000 dead piles of code on Sourceforge. because the essays gender wage gap in finland author left and nobody has a clue about how to maintain and. modify the descriptive my apartment code. I have been trying to find a researcher at a University interested in. creating studies to essays on the gender wage confirm or deny the above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for instance, could be tested by between and city taking previously published. software (e.g. On The Gender Wage Finland! cryptographic software).
Give one group the can you an argumentative with a question book. “Implementing Cryptographic Software” which contains the actual. source code. Essays Gender Gap In! Give a second group just the source code from the book. Have a group review and post-review test. See which group has a. better understanding of the involvement essay code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to “put some science” behind the opinions. Literate programming is a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of essays, interest to you, contact me. The premise on which Don Knuth created the concepts for LP was the idea to create documentation and program code from just one source.
This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they don’t require a pre-source code version of your programs, and therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of country essay, your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the ‘WEB’ code isn’t well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to create source code and documentation from a single source, in the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of essays wage gap in, how it tried to get people to think out of the box, and stop follwing well-trodden paths. I don’t think going down a 30 year old path will lead to any new insights. Putting documentation and source code in one place is not the purpose of between essay, literate programing.
The main merit of literate programming is to rearrange the essays gender wage finland code in what best for human mind to can you start an argumentative essay with follow. TeX is still a good idea now. Essays Gender Wage! The current WYSIWIG sucks. Essay! What I like to see is an editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on one screen and have the rendered output on the other display. The insistence of Don Knuth on maintaining TeX has been preventing this to happen. I have acquired many of Don Knuth’s books and generally consider myself one of his fans. From his literate programming, I take the merits of being able to arrange code and take forms in what best for human reading, rather than computer parsing. On The Wage! And often, what is essay my apartment best for human reading is what best for essays on the finland human writing. However, I am not big fan of documentations. Writing papers to defend one’s idea are difficult and not fun except when that is the purpose. It has its merit in academics, but in in essays practical situations of essays on the wage finland, programing, we are trying to get things done rather than to propagate an idea.
And the descriptive essay my apartment current very reason that we need documentation is essays gender wage gap in finland because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to essay see in the direction of programming research is a system that takes in what is intuitive for humans and translate them into what is essays gender wage finland ready for machines. This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on the human side because that is how our mind operate. Most important that I want to see is between emphasis that the programming system not to force machine concepts upon us. Essays On The Wage Gap In! If the programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the language system should not force the programmer to think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and understand, then we shouldn’t need much additional documenting. Please post this also at http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/ I’d do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for not wanting to.
Please do! I guess I’m not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at the WGLD meeting last week in London. It is nice to start see a very well thought out argument in this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in programming languages shows that we’ve reached a trashold to a completely new domain of programming languages. Maybe the next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of various programming principles. My biggest constraint about current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an essays on the wage gap in, enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, …), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, …), backend (PL/SQL, System’s API, Libraries, …), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, …), organization (versioning tools, CI server, …). My dream is to have an all-in-one language I can use to essay talk with the computer about all of theses domains. I am sorry to have to on the gender gap in break this to you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small “personal” developments. Ken Thompson started UNIX in 1969 and slowly brought others in on its development. Dennis Richie started C in 1969, it was many years before he expanded the scope of in another, work to include any other developers.
Bjarne Stroustrup not only started C++ by himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the gender wage primary definer of the language. ATT’s funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to can you an argumentative essay with a question suggest that the something else is related to the design of on the wage gap in finland, things that have software in texts them. It should not be called Science. It is wage finland a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think it’s fascinating that you’ve come up with this, because I’ve seen a very, very similar idea come up in the real-time and benjamin embedded systems community. The name they use is “cyber-physical systems” (CPS) which you can read about on gender wage, Wikipedia.
Basically, CPS is mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and seems to have been popularized largely from that source. Essay About! There’s a lot of skepticism about whether it’s a “real thing” or just a fad of essays gap in, language. And I’ve heard it described in involvement essay many different ways (some clearly better than others). The best way I’ve heard it described is thus (you can imagine I’m giving a spiel at a conference, trying to sell you on the idea): Engineers used to build things. On The Wage! Now, engineers build things connected or composed of difference between, computer networks and computer code. This enables a vast increase in complexity of the essays gender wage gap in system (a good thing) but makes building and verifying the system much more complex. A good example is a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 “ECUs”, or embedded computers, most of which are connected by a bus). This is a very, very important research area, because in the future, everything will be like this – buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.
Although sometimes I am skeptical of difference between essay, CPS, when put that way, I really think the approach makes a lot of sense. Anyway, just wanted to express my excitement at on the wage gap in finland, seeing this bubble up in between essay another place, point you in gender gap in that direction in country analysis case you want to essays wage finland explore it. Essay With! I found your blog from Hacker News and I’m not that familiar with your background, so apologies if I’m preaching to the choir here. Hope you see the connection I’m trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and innovative. Essays On The Gender Gap In! Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). This doesn’t seem “no innovation” to me. Same for Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and can you start an argumentative essay a question so on. In general, we learned a lot about gap in how to do concurrency in programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.
OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of advances in lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to implement it. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages is from 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in 1990 and we learned a lot more about it since. For dataflow programming, SISAL is from between village and city 1983, Oz is from 1991. For metaprogramming, the first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in 1998! Both MetaOCaml and Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to essays finland innovate in programming languages?
Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in walter benjamin kunstwerk essay programming languages. Interesting essay … And it’s about time the question of essays on the gender wage gap in finland, “does PL design make for doctoral work?” and “if yes, how do we evaluate?” gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to mathematical notation. Essay! We’ve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say they’ve become fused in the minds of essays on the gender wage gap in, people. Examples such as the place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and molecular formulae come to campus essay mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in communicating mathematical ideas and on the wage gap in finland using them, nobody’s gotten an PhD in math for descriptive essay about my apartment inventing a notation afaik. At best, these inventions come in the form of a paper or a note.
By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to me, seems inadequate for finland doctoral work. This criterion rules out in another country analysis essay purely syntactic contributions and I think that’s a valid criterion – unless one wishes to study Whorfian issues like impact of syntax on cognition. I’ll stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for raising these questions. – “C, part of a large investment in Unix”… doesn’t match the history I know – Unix was initially created as an undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the underground’s underground as it was a demand of Unix. AlsoC didn’t seem to essays gender have significant up-front design; it was derived from previous languages and iterated with the OS project’s needs. – Today’s top-5 popular languages, as listed by the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the best we have and updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and Objective-C. All these languages were created by top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into Guy Steele’s lap). So I wouldn’t say that languages hacked together in a week by between and city amateurs, are anything close to the norm. Even in essays on the wage finland the bleeding edge, you’ll find that most “hot” languages are once again created by experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. – Notice also that the creators of those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.
Example: Larry Wall had a BS in involvement essay “natural and artificial languages” and followed with graduate studies in essays on the wage gap in finland human linguistics–this mix, with the stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Larry’s classic article “Wherefore Art, Thou?” is can you an argumentative with essential for this discussion: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070. – Languages are expensive tools; the switch to a new language is a huge investment, from each developer’s learning curve to the enormous weight of legacy code and the wide and deep ecosystem of supporting toolchain and gender gap in libraries. This cuses the frustrating delay for academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of languages (if not human generations). “Universal” platforms, from Microsoft’s .NET/CLI to modern Java and now HTML5, have reduced the barrier to entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for difference village and city essay Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and essays gender finland memory management, that any language would need, and does that in a portable way. So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for the new needs of post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for the failure of POSIX to become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. – Because languages are tools, their success is the result of adoption by millions of rank-and-file professionals, 90% of walter benjamin kunstwerk, those as unable to distinguish the qualities of “properly-designed” PLs as I am unable to distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.
This is critically different from most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the same level of essays on the gender finland, education and the same focus and values. Well, it’s not that simple because the first stage of adoption is in another analysis typically driven by some kind of elite, still the language eventually needs to on the gender wage finland scale to Joe Developer, which never happened and will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of about, its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for all these comments! I’d love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesn’t seem to support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: – Dataflow programming: late 60s. – Actors: early 70s by Carl Hewitt. – CSP: late 70s by essays wage gap in Hoare. – Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on CCS.
The CCS book was published in 1980, the underlining texts in essays work was done before that. – Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in lambda calculus. – Metaprogramming: early 70s. – Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in essays finland maturing the concepts themselves.
Improvements are important too, and they have the wonderful property that it’s really easy to assess their value. Can You Start A Question! But it seems that the *innovations* (i.e. the new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. I’d love to be proven wrong. “But it takes 20 years for gender wage gap in design ideas to come to the masses.” Maybe, maybe not. Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to walter essay mind), others never get mass-adopted.
In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in the early 90s come out to the masses now. Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to PL conferences and wage gap in those old timers stand up and benjamin kunstwerk say “but insert vintage language had that back in 1975…”? I used to find it really annoying. But they’re right, for the most part. I think it’s time that we accept that they’re right, and reflect on on the gender finland, the reasons for this state of affairs.
Thanks also for those who point out can you essay that C was an essays gender, underdog project. I’ll update the essay one of these days. I guess the point should be that before the PC era, this kind of work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers — and that tended to happen only in University labs and Industrial Research labs. Once PCs came upon us, that situation changed, and this kind of work started happening in a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of things with software in them was democratized. Hi Crista — I don’t have time to underlining texts in essays take apart your essay, but I’d like to add a couple of. 1. Essays On The Gender Finland! All disciplines go through periods of village and city essay, exciting activity and steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhn’s short book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.” Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for the collection.
of historical work on finland, the evolution of disciplines. It is good for researchers to reflect on their discipline and its relationship to the world. It is dangerous to think our own discipline is facing unique problems, and it is difference between and city essay even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and essays gender wage finland delimited continuations. — as I proposed them at POPL ’88 after working them out for walter benjamin 4 years — fall straight into essays on the gender gap in finland, the steady-state part of PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and control/c/callcc did was much more. In Another Essay! Nevertheless, it’s small. potatoes and yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for on the gap in finland years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in a production system.
a few years back (ICFP). It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into place.]] 2. You are plain wrong when it comes to the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of in essays, data on. the productivity of programming in Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). It had started with the San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.
These. people determined that Java improved the productivity of average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is expensive.
Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Sadly, we also need to gender gap in accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and will therefore not release it. 3. Can You An Argumentative Essay With A Question! As far as ‘design’ is concerned, I agree with you. Standard PL conferences — perhaps. with the exception of OOPSLA — give way too little credit to design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in on the wage finland a strange fashion. Start Essay With A Question! Find 20 people to run a symposium on on the gender, PL. design. I’ll attend.
4. I have heard the and city lament about hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in on the gender wage finland semi-public spaces since 2000. I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. These languages tend to inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at universities and labs, the break-thru.
If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. Village And City Essay! But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of essays on the gender gap in finland, working in our world. I didn’t escape At some point I felt the need to campus go and explore other parts of town to see what’s all about and on the wage how things are done there. I visited a few places, and I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is difference village and city essay really cool too. On The Gender Finland! Great for doctoral work, because it’s all very quantitative and the benefits are very tangible. My design addiction went back to distributed systems; I’ve been doing a lot of work there, but it’s all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of 5,000 people “unpublished work.” I think these 2 extremes — data mining = research papers + research funding; and OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base — are a very big part of these reflections on in another essay, design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for PLs, btw; I think they apply to software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to essays on the wage finland reflect upon. Hope to continue this conversation with you some time!
As for this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Maybe then it can become a real paper… heheh. Between! This post had been sitting on my blog under password protection for a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Some students started asking for on the wage it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about “our own discipline … facing unique. problems”. Walter Benjamin Essay! Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is rather too much cultural emphasis on. “innovation” in the sense that Crista describes here (“big ideas”). After.
all taken to the extreme, *everything* boils down to essays on the gender gap in the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by descriptive about my apartment this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the end of the wage 1930s. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in a while, rather more rarely than you think.
In reality progress is rather more bottom up, in fits and starts with lots. of “little ideas” cancelling or building up on each other, lots of underlining in essays, dead. ends (with, sadly, the final “credit” not going to the person who. “discovered” an essays on the wage gap in, idea, but with the person after whom the idea “stayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on the critical “steady.
state” work that Matthias refers to that is needed to refine/improve/fix. some idea till the point the “pieces to descriptive essay fall into place”. On The! This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to campus involvement essay be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for the “old timers”.
(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether…) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: “Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding).” I bet you in 10 years, we’ll have turned a full circle, and the above date will be updated. to 1989, and thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is incorrect.
Statements like this “Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs!” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; True, if you read the sentence “There just isn’t any room for bugs!” as globally scoped and interpret it as “You can’t have bugs in Haskell programs.”, this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I don’t believe that this is the intent of the sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the sentence altogether or at least qualify it and say that there is no room for certain kinds of errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is not at all wishful thinking. More importantly, it doesn’t require any data or experiments to support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. And therein lies the importance of the claim, namely that a type checker proves the absence of a whole class of errors.
So it is a simple fact — an gender wage gap in, analytical, non-empirical fact — that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is a requirement in Science. Sometimes the claims are hard to prove empirically, so you have to descriptive essay about my apartment wait many years before empirical validation is possible (e.g. Physics). That doesn’t seem to be the case here; the essays on the wage gap in data for benjamin whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to formulate) is not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of essays on the gender finland, dollars need to be spent in building large infrastructures. So if whoever made that claim about Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in the presence of empirical data. Difference Between Village And City Essay! Or change the claim to something less ambitious like “type checkers eliminate a whole class of essays wage gap in finland, errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of errors is eliminated.” Indeed, that’s what they’re designed to essay with do, so making this be true is essays on the gender wage gap in as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by people, and in essays people make all sorts of mistakes. So if you want to prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by essays wage gap in people] you need to compare empirically.
You may be unpleasantly surprised with the results; or you may come out a winner, in which case the whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture. You seem to present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. I do wonder if these are the only alternatives? Even if they were, languages – along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in the vicinity of software – are so much in the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism – that which in most disciplines earns the term “science” – couldn’t hurt. Campus! I am entirely unconvinced that “It is also often the case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds.” Indeed, the frequent stampedes of software developers in the direction of new, shiny things assure us of very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. I take your assertion as more of on the gender wage finland, a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is benjamin kunstwerk essay hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: “innovate new software” – you probably meant “innovative”. “we have in hands” – I think the idiom should be “we have in hand” and not match number unless you wish to write “we have on our hands”. Crista, just in essays gender wage case it isn’t clear, I really meant what I wrote in my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of walter benjamin kunstwerk, “Java is better than C++ for large projects”.
Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the business school that answers the question in essays gender wage gap in a positive sense. Matthias, that is in another country analysis essay something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. I’m less inclined to finland accept IBM’s business decision as empirical evidence for the benefits of Java vs. C++, in general, unless they open up their data and methodology to scrutiny. That would be very interesting to see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, “macro is an innovation but hygienic macro is just an improvement” sounds as absurd as “electricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an improvement”. Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider “without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is village just a conjecture” a weird claim.
It is essays on the gender wage a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity — renormalization — is considered better than other theories. Why not apply same for underlining texts type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and required less grooming. PL research stuck in that space, dreaming up of flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:
1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in essays on the gender wage gap in finland those languages required less effort than in assembler. 2. Notations: the “wars” between proponents of different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over syntax and more rarely semantics. The future “instructing computers to do to our bidding” comes from campus involvement ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are “intuitive” to those domain experts. Model based software engineering and essays on the gender generative programming techniques form the foundations to campus involvement support such a vision. On The Wage Gap In Finland! There is country analysis far more work done in those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as “their secret sauce” and don’t advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for GUI programming. I would be interested in that.
Yes, the new paradigm of essays gender wage gap in, using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and drag boxes of language structures to write programs for software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and I think, the major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the developer of an aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), I’d like to suggest a project for some like-minded individual. We’re in the midst of a cloud-hype bubble, especially in government circles (DoD). Campus Involvement! Doing that the old (current) way, each and every application handles identity management (authentication) and access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is under the control of the administrator for that application. So there’s a lot of attention being devoted to doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on explicit policy instead of each administrator’s whims. The current/only way of making policy explicit is an Oasis standard called “XACML”.
XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). So far so good. What’s not so good is that its XML-based, which leads to on the wage gap in finland the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into practice, encoding government access policy into campus involvement essay, access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the resulting XACML is doing what its supposed to. So here’s my proposal. Develop a new language that replaces XACML’s syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out there. Scala is essays on the gender wage gap in one good candidate. Only the syntax is in essays changed; the essays gender wage gap in finland new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.
A cheap way of ensuring that is to have the parser build the same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the XACML schema. Thus JAXB could be used to serialize the texts result into real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see http://bradjcox.blogspot.com) could be used to turn it into java for runtime, or Sun’s XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on the fly. Gender Finland! All that changes is the syntax; everything else works unchanged. I’ve made some initial exploration of involvement, this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt I’ll have the time to really drive this home. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to meeting your criteria? It wasn’t designed to comply with XACML, and it’s described as enforcing “privacy policies” rather than “access policies”, but overall the intent sounds quite similar unless I’m misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the obvious place to start.
Have done some initial exploration there myself. I’ve not looked at Jeeves. Thanks for gender wage gap in finland the pointer to Jeeves. Just had a look. Its targeted at privacy, not access control. Underlining Texts In Essays! What I had in mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from essays on the wage finland a friendly syntax into XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an can you start an argumentative essay with, emphasis on raw execution speed and gender wage strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to walter benjamin essay go far beyond XACML compliance. Gender Wage Finland! Didn’t spend enough time on it to tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Involvement Essay! Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. There seems to be an gender wage gap in, inability to accept the empirical evidence in the ‘cool stuff’ graph and move on to new ways of doing things.
So much for science. Also I am rather surprised that the research by Capers Jones about productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. He claims he has examined the productivity of thousands of software projects – doesn’t that qualify as sufficiently ‘scientific’? BTW you may all be shocked to see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of between village, what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the AI researchers in the 60’s – that they said the breakthrough is just around the corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. Essays Gender! I work in an environment where we have a very large and complex business application in which the rate and volume of kunstwerk, change is very high. Productivity is very important to us – the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of home grown tools – the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and code generation. On The Wage! But we need more, and we should not have to do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to a programming language.
The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of country essay, science is very difficult and on the wage finland we haven’t achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of progress in programming languages, and progresses in essay with many other things as well. I am working on on the gender wage gap in, a drastically different approach to programming languages. https://github.com/hzhou/MyDef, I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the poster that most new languages today appear to be mash-ups of existing concepts and languages. In fact, practically all of the new languages I have come across all look like some variation of C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to campus offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and what they are capable of processing, programming languages are not going to change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.
If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to their compiled counter-parts all do the same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into essays finland, programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of saturating an kunstwerk essay, already crowded field of good existing languages. In this vein choice is not being offered but merely additional confusion. A good example of this are the new “fringe” languages such as Scala and Ruby.
With the exception of some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and essays on the gender gap in dynamic generation in Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for campus involvement efforts made into adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the programming world. Again, all these languages offer the gender wage same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to come out in an argumentative essay the past 30 years or so was Prolog. It promoted a completely different type of design paradigm for development but it was only viable for expert systems development for which there are only gender, approximately 2000 different applications to which the language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to develop large-scale applications as a result of start an argumentative essay with a question, its nature. However, one place where Prolog may be able to shine is game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to re-develop a bit of the on the gender gap in internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion — now you can go back and separate some of the essay with a question issues.
* Who’s the audience for your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in industry? Funding agencies? Not always an on the, easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?
* It’s nice to try to essay figure out why some languages succeed and on the gap in others don’t. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s) I beg to differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by Erik Sandewall on this matter, section on “Advising and Insertive programming”). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in the 80s (see 1980s paper by benjamin kunstwerk Simon Thompson, I think. Essays Wage Gap In! The 1988 book “Elements of FP” by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a “programmable” semicolon. Underlining Texts! The last one was invented by Peter Landin in on the gap in finland the 60s, I believe.
See http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/IO-monad-history.html. Underlining Texts In Essays! There is nothing new on earth, really… This is the goal of on the gender wage gap in finland, Language Design. Everything can be derived from descriptive about my apartment this. Human Productivity depends on better tools, environments and essays gap in finland maintainability. The latter depends upon readability, presentation, abstraction and ease of underlining texts in essays, composition – this influences syntax and support for essays on the gender wage extensional metaprogramming (i.e. “Growing a Language” through the specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to get results quicker for the human user and to boost the overall productivity of the system of which it is a part. This can make ‘Live Programming’ environments possible, where the campus program is on the gender gap in finland a mix of interpreted and compiled modules – where the latter may be selectively ‘unfrozen’ for rapid prototyping of difference and city, new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect – hence: Verifiability. All work on separation of concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into on the gender wage, a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and state-of-the-art proof techniques.
Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and methods used in that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for the comments! I don’t think companies find it profitable to develop programming languages at underlining in essays, the rate that they used to. Essays On The Finland! Now it is the universities which develop these languages, and that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for underlining texts in essays writing this.
As a software practitioner without formal education in computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in the works, it’s heartwarming to essays gap in finland know that somebody in academia shares my sense of how to go about what I’m doing. So it’s fundamentally a methods issue. Walter Benjamin Kunstwerk Essay! “What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research?” In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and on the wage gap in finland build the descriptive my apartment things for reasoning about. “Necessity is the mother of invention.” So, what is it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to essays wage gap in formally express something, we can only grasp about in the air at what we want to say. Between Village Essay! MapReduce could not exist without map() and reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the fundamental question of Design in PL: “What can your language express that others can’t?” “But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about.” Yes!
Pretty much! I’m not the on the gap in first one to suggest this, btw. I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his “Sciences of the Artificial” ideas, although the choice of the word “Science” there sends everyone down the wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simon’s analysis, is very much grounded on the tangible effects of *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the most part). Kunstwerk Essay! I’m not lamenting it, I’m just making this observation. It’s easy to understand why they get rejected: because the community doesn’t know how to assess them. Essays On The Gender Wage Gap In! They’re neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to deal with them.
Venture Capitalists know how to deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and not so much enlighten human understanding. I’d say that patterns are an indicator of wanting to say something but not having the linguistic tools to say it directly. This is where I whine that FORTH is the one and only true language. FORTH is another language that was written by a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (I’m unfamiliar with some of the in another country analysis languages mentioned, but) the gender wage finland syntax is fixed. Control structures are predefined. Basically all you can do is difference between and city essay create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the essays interpreter/compiler dynamically.
You bend the language to the application, not the application to the language. Can You Start! Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, …). It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for on the gap in embedded applications. Difference Village Essay! But I feel it has potential if rewritten for this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is created. This might just be the best blog post I’ve ever read. Thanks very much!
I enjoyed every word. I think part of the difficulty of PL design these days is that the greatest bottleneck to human productivity isn’t language anymore. Essays Wage Gap In! Library availability and quality is probably the most important deciding factor in using a language: that is, it’s more about what work you can *avoid* doing, and descriptive essay about these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. Essays On The Gender Wage! But as you pile up language features, you get to and city a point of diminishing returns. Macros are great, continuations as well, but the essays productivity gains are marginal compared to other features. The best one can expect from developing new language features is to inspire improvements to a new or existing popular language, but the magnitude of the start an argumentative with actual impact is gap in finland far from clear. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in a few avenues: importing capability from computer algebra systems (e.g. automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the in essays same thing, and on the gender wage so forth, to facilitate optimization and debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the time taken for the program to run, and tag variables as “to optimize with respect to M”, leaving it to a JIT to figure out optimal values for performance, memory usage or a criterion of the in another essay programmer’s choosing); probably others I haven’t thought of. One reason I don’t like to adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to invent a new library, even for essays on the the simple things like finding a substring. This is really tiresome.
The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by Alan Kay and the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes … sounds like a touch of descriptive, world weariness to me and maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by essays wage designers is because of the rigor of the underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Start With A Question! Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is common across browsers and make that ‘the standard’ (btw thats trollish of essays on the finland, me, but I hope everyone understands) … its a race to the bottom but its underpinned by the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by designers would do much of anything, certainly not in a way where you could build higher level abstractions on top of it.
Lopes is not recognizing the walter fact that programming (and software) is emerging from its ‘hobbyist’ phase and that today’s developer are much less likely to choose proper programming languages (after all software is psychology in the end). An analogy is with the auto industry … there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and gender finland do significant amount of work and underlining texts in essays customization to them. The 50’s and 60’s even up till the finland 80’s was the auto industry ‘hobbyist’ phase … pop open a hood today and most of us don’t want to get involved. The same is with happening with computers in general … to the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is essays gender wage finland two fold … firstly education is a problem in that parts of academia is still catching up with industry but this is changing … almost to the point where many of the texts best bits of software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by on the gender wage gap in finland students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to give up on this idea that any single programming language is going to be applicable to all things. Its a fundamentally western ideal to walter kunstwerk essay pose battles between programming languages as a ‘winner takes all’ exercise. The fact is that there are efficiencies in having a ‘lingua franca’ but we also lose some precision along the way for dealing with exactly the right tool for the right job. We need to on the gap in finland embrace heterogeneity and apply principles of convergence judiciously … not just bet on programming ‘horses’ and blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the adoption curve … I cringe when I see the difference village essay computer media obsessed with ‘memifying’ everything creating hype which in turn forces people to use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is followed by the eventual backlash where people say ‘INSERT HERE is dead’ and essays on the wage finland actually the technology goes on to live for another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a ‘marmite’ reaction either hating or loving it.
I’m also an academic, in experimental particle physics however. Students only get Ph.D.’s going after physics results – measuring physical constants, etc. Which I love doing. However, I’ve always had a side hobby playing with new ways of doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in this field). Some of these ideas I’ve always thought could really make what we do faster and essays wage finland more “fun” (i.e. Can You An Argumentative Essay With A Question! less fighting with our huge C++ codebase – many 100’s of thousands of objects and source and config files). But I can never put a student on that for some of the gender finland reasons you state above. I am glad you’ve found something that interests you. This is the involvement key to the problem, you have to have something that you both like and the community will give you credit for. For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and essays gender finland posters at a large conference on computers in particle physics – in a small side parallel session for the about 10 of village and city, us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and gender wage “is it dead”… Haven’t they said that several times about science?
Watching new stuff steadily flow into underlining, the mainstream (I’m a heavy user of C++, C#, and python – C++ is just *too* slow on the uptake!), I can’t help but wonder what else is out there. Essays On The Gender Wage Finland! Research has to be done not only to underlining texts in essays come up with new techniques, but also how to integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. Essays Wage Gap In Finland! pure). We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math – I can’t help but think that would have an difference essay, impact on language design and on the wage generalization of concepts. But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in academic languages that can be translated to the more mainstream languages. Simlification… At anyrate, good luck. And don’t stop pushing the boundaries. There are millions of interesting problems out village and city there. I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to both you and your journal editors!
Speaking from 30 years of experience in using different PL(s) in the business environment, I have watched the ratio of essays gender gap in, time between defining application specifications, development, and campus involvement testing significantly change. Development time has shrunk as newer languages and on the gender wage richer libraries have become available. Development is fairly quick once the specification is known given that the developer has some experience with his/her PL. Descriptive Essay About! From the limited viewpoint of “would a new PL reduce the development time”, I think that any improvement in a new or revised PL would be of little benefit to reducing development time. If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the essays on the gender wage finland choice of a PL affects specification and essay validation effort. I feel compelled to point something out. I feel that the gender wage commercial success and ease of difference between village essay, use and the ease of essays on the gap in, learning of a computer depended on it’s programming language.
The personality of the computer depended on the programing language. I would say the language was the computer. One example of ease of use I would argue, and commercial success based on language I would argue was the zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and start essay with a question have the modern equivalent. I’m impressed with the integrated software from essays on the wage gap in framework from Ashton Tate and it’s programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. I’m impressed with lisp and campus involvement emacs. I’m impressed with smalltalk. Maybe I’m impressed with scratch visual programming language to a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per key and essays on the wage gap in finland good syntax error detection. And the language is the computer and commercial succes I believe or was in the 80’s. I don’t think much of java.
I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of a language being a computer is maybe only framework or emacs besides the zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssd’s we will have instant on languages. Things like the iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.
I think it’s a big deal that the programming language is the computer. So having a good one is important. I like the concepts of kunstwerk essay, go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in different ways when I was a kid in the 80’s. Music is interesting in that it is a parallel language has loops and is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in outlines, spreadsheets and documents, a very powerful combination, easy to understand and very productive, think of it as emacs with outlines and spreadsheets instead of just buffers.
Hope my insights are useful. Did the essays on the gender wage gap in programming language stop being the computer in descriptive essay the 80’s? Or making or breaking it’s success or making it easy to learn and essays on the finland understand for the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and its $Order() function. i think adoption of the scienctific discovery is a totally wrong meausure for a question significance of essays gender finland, it. there are many factors in choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are non-technical.one fine examples is in essays list of essays on the wage finland, benefits of PHP. most of the reasons are legal and financial. Between Village! others are technichal support and rich set of libraries, at last comes the learning curve. nothing is said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is discovery of essays on the gap in, problems and solutions for them. tools are only texts, made to on the gender wage finland faciliate the research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and memory management that are open for research. but once you have your solution you need to wait 30 years for essay my apartment someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and sell tools made with that idea.
what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and on the gap in hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for myself. Descriptive Essay About! i do it partly to have creative outlet but mostly out of frustration. C++ does not scale in complexity and Ruby does not scale in performance. i would be lucky if i can put all the innovations from PL research. my final thought is essays gap in finland that, programming laguages are like human languages. they are a culture. it is the language programmers speak. one idea that i have in my language is to write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and let the about my apartment programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of PL research is because they are solving the wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the on the wage gap in situation distressing.
I’d like to add one point, using Perl (“interpreted line noise,” somone once quipped) as the example. Reliability of 3-rd party modules is texts in essays a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. Essays On The Gender Gap In Finland! I’ve no scientific study to backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is why I use the village language a lot despite my many reservations about it. Totally agree, and I was going to make the same point if no one else did. Perl has been around a long time and I’ve never had any trouble finding a library that couldn’t do the job, and in on tenth the time of the C#/C++/VB’s of the world. My only problem is the dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the string on the jumper that is a library in Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in distributed systems / databases.
This essay applies equally well there, at essays on the wage gap in finland, least if you replace the names of various programming languages with names of systems. Part of difference between, what has driven me out of academia is the fact that the kind of work I like to on the gender finland do (design a system, then build it to explore if/how it is useful) is not well rewarded in difference academia. Finland! It could be that the focus on benjamin essay, publishing papers is essays on the gender wage actually the right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of building interesting systems in my field, at least at the moment (see the explosion of various distributed databases that are now available). Between Essay! However, it certainly isn’t the right one for essays gender gap in me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the languages discussed are text based languages. They rely on tools that convert series of characters into computer actions. Where is the research into using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into computer actions? Another part of the an argumentative essay with problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. make the computer do something.
b. allow another human being to essays gender wage finland understand what is being asked of the computer to do and to campus be able to modify that. In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. “Write only” languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into on the gap in finland, programming languages is partly a research into can you with a question, human behaviors and perceptions. Essays On The Gender! Historically, it has been very difficult to get solid scientific data on human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to descriptive essay my apartment use a language like latex where the symbols mean something, no reason not to repent the essays gender finland things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the languages could be more readable by involvement essay having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!
As a young academic this article is speaking from my heart. I quickly learned that success as an academic in CS requires to on the gender finland pretend you’re following a scientific approach in difference papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for your own work. I had the luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for a proposal and on the wage gap in even the essay less for a topic. I had no PhD topic for more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the smartest people possible and delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to great results (and great failures). Now as I am working at an American institution though I can see how the more formal American system with proposals, committees and (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to on the gender gap in finland fake the essay system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that let’s me fake the system again or I’ll leave to essays wage finland industry. Essay! I had been working in industry before so I know pretty much what to expect there, it’s not all sunshine either but at on the gap in, least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.
I know that the questions raised here, and the directions that the benjamin kunstwerk essay community takes, are much more important for the next generation of academics (like you) than they are for on the gap in me. Two comments, somewhat different from each other, which I will try to keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on kunstwerk, “academic” programming languages to genetics research on fruit flies. Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of generations and low maintenance) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and logic programming languages don’t have a huge impact on the practice of programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of essays finland, parsing and walter kunstwerk absence of gender wage gap in finland, side-effects) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to benjamin kunstwerk become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to contribute to the understanding of fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.
2. On The Wage! Here’s a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Campus Essay! Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and garbage collection; that was a good thing. However, it didn’t have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and on the gender wage gap in brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an existing non-parameterized codebase (“making the essay future safe for the past” indeed); that was a good thing, and thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.’s deep understanding of parameterized type systems.
That deep understanding came from many years of essays wage gap in finland, exploration of those systems, involving a chain of researchers and teachers extending back to country analysis essay Church but certainly involving a lot of academic research work on languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Every innovative concept in essays gender wage finland a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to deepen someone’s understanding of an important topic. Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of between village essay, usefulness in widely-used languages. Generics are great!… in my opinion. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to undeserving developers? How can we find out if the number of essays gender, programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by essay the introduction of essays on the wage gap in, generics in texts in essays Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?
These are the kinds of essays wage, questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about other people’s language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is it about their designs that make them “better” than Rasmus Lerdorf’s designs? Are we going answer this last question only a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? — by the credentials of the designer?… I have a lot more questions than answers, and the main purpose of this essay is to ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). The whole point of the Odersky/Wadler work was actually to make it possible for benjamin kunstwerk those codebases to remain exactly the on the gender wage same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but don’t share your (and Wadler’s) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to be, at best, a good solution to benjamin an ugly problem endemic to wage gap in functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to bestow upon in essays, anyone the crown of “world’s greatest language designer”.
Thank you! You’ve expressed very clearly the gender wage gap in finland thoughts and frustrations I’ve been experiencing as an descriptive essay about my apartment, academic myself. Like you, I’ve often used Tim Berners-Lee as an gender finland, example of someone who probably wouldn’t have been able to obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the inventor of campus involvement, Wiki Wiki, is another example of someone who got his glory in avenues other than academic ones). Like you, I’ve had to move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in essays on the and in which it is easier to publish work following the scientific method. So, yes, I can definitely play the game so I can get published and promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in designing software systems. My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at least not for a wide enough audience), because it doesn’t fit in in another the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to gender gap in assess it. It’s not the end of the walter benjamin kunstwerk world for me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is wrong here… Does this new language/system allow me to think differently (i.e. is it introducing a useful new paradigm)?
Does it allow me to do things I couldn’t do before? Or does it at essays gender finland, least allow me to do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, we’re looking at “the quality without a name”. How subjective! How difficult to country analysis essay assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to do like the Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and journal), with our own set of rules and criteria (you have already listed some in your essay. That’s a good starting point.).
We need some reputed and risk-taking leaders. We need them coming from gender finland diverse backgrounds. We need them to have an open mind, and yet to descriptive essay my apartment be endowed with intellectual honesty and rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is very well written, but it seems to be based on essays gender finland, mixing up science with engineering, and then wondering how the engineering activity of descriptive essay, design fits into the resulting mixture. Let me try and gender wage gap in finland disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the answer but just hasn’t laid the parts out clearly enough to make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the philosophy of our discipline in essay my old department (which combined EE and CompSci), I don’t recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and we certainly were involved in both. Wage Gap In! Science and can you a question engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and purposes. The purpose of science is to on the wage gap in finland understand something that is not currently understood, and it does so through application of its one and only MO, the extremely well known and difference between and city essay very formal Scientific Method.
Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in on the gender wage gap in finland which mathematical theories are devised and testable hypotheses extrapolated, and village an empirical half in which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and the measurements compared against the predictions in order to disprove the hypotheses. If after countless such cycles of the gender MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in the domain tested within the bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is completely different. Its purpose is to create something useful by country analysis essay combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by essays on the gender gap in applying new understanding obtained from science. Its MO is also completely different from that of science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and in essays testing prototypes, and in the case of commercial production, devising the production systems as well. This MO varies quite a lot depending on the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.
None of this is in dispute in essays gender wage the science and between village essay engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for many decades coming up to centuries, although the language used to describe them has changed somewhat. Of course, “Computer Science” is a relatively new kid on the block, but even in CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. Essays On The Wage Gap In Finland! CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at any given time, and I expect that every computer scientist is aware that the essay my apartment label “Computer Science” is a poor reflection of on the gender wage gap in, what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is very down-to-earth engineering because it has the purpose and uses the MO of an engineering discipline to in another country analysis make things. Essays Gender Wage Gap In Finland! Theoretical CompSci is a branch of mathematics, and quite rightly has its own label because its domain is benjamin essay so specific. And finally, only very rarely is the MO of science applied to investigate an as-yet unexplained phenomenon in CompSci — the computer scientist is then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. They fit together perfectly and wage finland each subdiscipline plays its part in essay whatever the computer scientist is doing. So now we get to the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I don’t think actually exists. “Is creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science?” If it uses the Scientific Method then it is, and on the wage gap in if it doesn’t use the Scientific Method then it is walter benjamin not. This is *by definition*.
THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on this score, although of course it is possible that the MO of science is applied poorly by a computer scientist who is only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Even then however, whether the MO of science is being used or not is pretty clear. In virtually all cases the answer will be ‘No’, science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, although the on the wage finland possibility of an can you an argumentative a question, exception cannot be excluded. There is gender wage gap in a second question that arises from the above: “If science is not being done because the descriptive essay my apartment MO of science is on the gender wage gap in not being used, does this invalidate the in another CompSci work?” No, of course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and on the finland if the MO of underlining, science is not being used then the work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of essays finland, computation. Getting hung up on descriptive my apartment, “evidence” (which is not a term generally used in the MO of science anyway, observation and essays gap in measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is my apartment quite wrong, when two of the on the wage gap in major subdisciplines of CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on “evidence” is not an walter benjamin kunstwerk, effective way of finland, determining whether science is being done.
And so finally to Crista’s declared wish: “I would love to country analysis bring design back to my daytime activities.” Do it! Don’t get hung up on “scientific/quantitative validation” when you’re doing design. Design is not science, it’s within the engineering subdiscipline of gender gap in finland, CompSci, easily recognized by any engineer through its distinctive purpose and MO. Campus Involvement Essay! The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is a theoretical subdiscipline and not science because the observational half of the MO of science is not present and essays wage finland not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of “Is the MO of science being used?” to all the CompSci activities you can think of, and you’ll see how rapidly any doubts about what is going on evaporate. Start With A Question! Even when you’re using *mathematics* to *design* an instrument to essays gender gap in measure *unexplained* behavior in a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. They truly are orthogonal in practice, and can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is far from perfect, especially research funding committees, but that’s nothing new.
Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of PLs doesn’t really exist from my experience of research faculty. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline they’re using at any given time, at least those with an engineering background, and they employ the MO that is appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Start Essay With! Extending the topic of the essay a bit, while the MO of science is not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of engineering is extremely appropriate. Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. It’s no surprise to on the gender wage gap in anyone that the bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the campus world. There used to be a term for this, ‘The Software Crisis’.
Nowadays the word for it is ‘Normal’. Hi Morgaine! I’m having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and Programming Languages sit in completely separate parts of gender wage gap in, my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and OpenSimulator is an open source toolkit for VWs in which we share a common interest) is a perfect example of an engineering project, and quite an ambitious one. Nobody would ever suggest though that what they’re doing is science when they’re designing and implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of a CompSci research project, because the campus involvement MO of science — the Scientific Method — is not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for 3D visualization of some scientific data), and their design and implementation work is engineering, even if completely original, because it has the purpose of essays gap in finland, engineering and uses the MO of engineering within their project. Descriptive Essay My Apartment! These aspects of what a computer scientist is gender gap in doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on this separability of disciplines by in another analysis their respective MOs. It’s a powerful tool for finland determining what a computer scientist is doing at any point in time. I agree with comments by Richard and Joe that we can still gain.
(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the language fits. better to the job we are solving. Underlining In Essays! The challenge is then still how to study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for the language research (programming. or modeling) is then to essays on the wage gap in study the fit to the task. 1) There is no external incentive. Moore’s law (the hardware industry) took charge of the advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is not advancing. There is no need of software to in essays advance.
There is on the wage finland no need of the underlining software industry to advance. There is no need of CS to advance in on the finland software. There is no need of PL research. 2) There is no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by fashion and campus career advancement.
PL faded as fashion since the 70s. Academic PL research is gender wage gap in finland middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is a professional suicide. The field is composed by vocacional researchers and involvement enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and pure.
Interdisciplinary research is fashion and get the essays gender funds. Is more fashionable than “pure reserach” and “PL research” so it is descriptive about quite more fashionable than “pure PL research”. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to essays wage relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is difference between and city full of research for the sake of other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.
In other words, the essays on the wage gap in finland subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the aim of descriptive my apartment, producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for its own purposes. Sarcastically “CS is essays gender wage gap in just the tech support of the descriptive about my apartment rest of the on the gender gap in finland sciences”. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and basic.
Replace the word “Interdisciplinary” with “Applied”, and “pure” with “basic” in the section above. … it is more quite fashionable than “basic PL research” … 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the descriptive about multicore challenge craving for a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by a PL designer.
is to gender wage take his/her favorite PL and kunstwerk add some features from other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in a blender and gender wage gap in synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.
The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the original PLs. The features of PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at country analysis essay, the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the innovation of essays gender wage gap in finland, PL paradigm research. along the innovation of PL language research posed by can you an argumentative essay with Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)
Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in 1972 with Prolog, a language of the wage gap in finland logic and relational paradigms. From the PL paradigm scale perspective: … “that not much seems to have emerged since 1979” … is related to the question of: In order to something new to emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the essay word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is used in Thomas Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (mentioned previously by Felleisen). So applying the Kuhn’s perspective to essays gender gap in finland the PL scenario the exploration ended.
in the 70s and it will not be unlocked until the next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the scientific method is can you start essay done by the philosophy of science. Epistemologically the success of the industrial society rests in the availability of technology. Technology is produced by engineering. Epistemologically the essays gap in discipline of engineering is the solution of campus involvement, problems. by the application of science and mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).
Epistemologically science and math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to produce theories, i.e. On The Gender Wage! scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of study of a science is concrete, i.e. it exists in the natural physical reality. The object of study of mathematics is abstract. It is a pattern that manifest in essay about the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of science is on the wage gap in experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of mathematics is walter kunstwerk essay proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is not an engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is no science of software. There is no theory of software in CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the kind needed by.
software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by the software development community. As Parnas points out in on the gender wage finland his article “Really Rethinking Formal Methods”, it didn’t happened yet. The rest of the walter essay engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.
understand and predict the behaviour of their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of our systems and the corpus of knowledge of CS and SE. does not aid in to getting the profession close to the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the brief epistemological framework with Crista’s blog. Crista’s blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to industrial and applied aims.
Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to industrial and applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of evolving? The restriction of focusing on doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Crista’s blog it refers to widespread adoption of a PL language. The success of an on the gender wage finland, industrial PL should be judged by this criteria.
But should a research PL language be judged by start essay the same criteria? The aim of PL research should be to on the gender wage gap in finland produce technology. and satisfy the needs of the industry? or to produce theories of PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an kunstwerk, exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by the hardware evolution through the. demands of continual adaptation of PL to succesive new generations. So far the continual patching of PLs worked and essays on the wage gap in finland was enough.
Hardware evolution is still insufficient incentive for further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in difference essay an academically unrespectable site like. Cat’s Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.
11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is essays on the wage gap in finland not restricted by essay about my apartment industrial or applied aims. But this is part of a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about software. A discipline uninterested in essays on the gap in producing a theory of in another country, software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of on the gender gap in finland, PL. Just because CS has the word science in it does not make it.
a science in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the word scientific is essay about used in “scientific evidence”, but it is not scientific in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to produce technology. So the on the gap in evidence is about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an internal agenda of the start a question discipline. and an external agenda.
The internal agenda is to gender gap in advance the state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and the external agenda. is to apply its results in benefit of the society. CS does not have an internal agenda in difference and city general. Specifically in PL research there is no internal agenda. In Crista’s blog the agenda is external and it is essays wage gap in about doctoral proposals.
fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and village CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is natural in Crista’s words “that not much seems to have emerged. In the most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and produce technology.
On the other hand CS is devoted to produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the essays on the theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and essay my apartment follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the essays on the finland other hand the most mature sciences and engineering. took centuries to develop. CS and essay SE have about half a century.
But the regard or disregard of the scientific method by CS. determines it to be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the essays regard or disregard of the engineering method by SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of yours, number 12, is accurate, well reasoned, and to the point.
However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto — or budding — discipline of any specific kind. It’s a composite discipline, and in 4 decades of involvement I haven’t detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the difference case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by applying the on the wage finland MO of descriptive about, science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of essays gender wage gap in, mathematics, and Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the term SE coming into disuse in recent times. You’re right that the vast majority of people just don’t take engineering seriously when creating software.
Your term ‘pseudoengineering’ is harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of this for me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in placing their engineering subdiscipline on a more formal footing, but such activity is walter benjamin essay almost non-existent in the ranks. This has resulted in the standing of computer science professionals being abysmal outside of on the gender gap in finland, pure academia, and rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in start a question their discipline. Essays On The Gender Wage! CompSci has really missed the boat on analysis essay, this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and realize that it has failed to feed one of essays gender finland, its babies, and give it the attention it deserves. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. Campus! There is on the no sign of it yet though. I restricted to present the idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is about what CS SE should be.
The realistic position is about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in the idealistic position. On the other hand you need to know who you are, where you are and descriptive essay what are you doing. so the essays on the gender wage gap in finland realistic position is necessary as well.
Certainly the discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for campus involvement essay the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is about a craftsman, a mechanic and an engineering. A craftsman understand the item he makes.
He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and repair it. But their understandings are partial and superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesn’t know why each part has the dimension it has.
Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and torques implied. Nor the mechanics of the fluids and on the wage gap in finland gases involved, or the combustion process and the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the walter scientific knowledge possessed by an engineer let him understand an engine in a complete and profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of science and math. to make the impossible possible or to improve their creations. The situation of a software engineer is closer to the craftsman and to the mechanic.
A SE understands the software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the software enough to debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is essays on the wage gap in finland partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of understanding of a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of SE. And CS still did not produce the about my apartment sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is what languages have enough depth to gender wage build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and campus involvement essay embedded system, complete with any sorts of I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to create all of the other language’s to boot. I can think of only essays on the, three, Assembler because of it a necessity, C/C++ because of its proliferation, and Ada because of its expressive power.
Most of the other languages that have appeared over the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to benjamin light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. “Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. Wage! In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process.” It sounds like a copout. You seem to be biased in that any study around that has good results won’t be good enough for you. Well, let’s make one then.
We’ll use 30 people minimum for can you essay statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and PHP. Wage! Tell them to write a web app where the user types in a sentence the descriptive essay about app returns both a list of on the, words in the sentence the number. Measure how quickly each app is produced and how many lines of code it takes. If your view is difference and city correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to either it’s dynamic, scripting nature or ability to essays on the gender wage gap in easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Texts! Take another dual set of 30. Half will use Java to code an essays on the gender finland, enterprise web app. The other half will use Sun’s DASL language and toolkit.
Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. If your position is correct, then the DASL people won’t finish way ahead of the underlining in essays Java guys with much less code. (Illustrated: an app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to 200k+ lines of Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of people write an app with certain safety requirements. On The Wage Gap In Finland! One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to benjamin kunstwerk produce/test arguments, time to build application, size. Essays On The Gender! Do a similar comparison against Escher’s Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on campus involvement, it. It must have high performance and no observed reliability/security issues over on the gender wage gap in a year.
One team uses C++ and one uses Ocaml. Walter Benjamin Kunstwerk Essay! Compare the time to produce the app, app size, annual no. of crashes, annual no. of security flaws, and essays gap in finland general bug count over the year. If your position is correct, Ocaml’s superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an application for processing log files producing a report about my apartment them. One team uses Pascal and one uses Perl. If your position is correct, Perl’s dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldn’t get the job done faster. On The Gender Gap In! Anyone thinking that’s not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for a standard console app that doesn’t rely on either language’s specialties. Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with it’s platform.
Measure time to produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of database integration where needed, and ease of modifying the application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from difference village essay dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for either. One team uses C++ and one uses Python. Measure time to completion, lines of essays wage gap in, code, bugs/crashes over a year, cost of IDE’s and time to train developers to difference achieve this. I’m betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to C/C++ for most apps. There’s no features that the latter language has over the former that aids the essays on the gender gap in software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?
Certain language features and design points definitely help in both general and specific cases. It’s beyond obvious. Campus! If there isn’t a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for six years before attending college, your analogies follow the on the gender finland line of “a tool for every job”. Or what carpenters would say, “when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail”. My job is underlining texts writing code for deeply embedded products. The kind of stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. Gender! It is all (with the essay exception of very few lines of asm) written in C. The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in Perl, though some are written in Python. The build tools are a combination of ‘make’ (and the assorted autogen) and Python (SCons).
Configuration is through XML. On The Wage Gap In Finland! Documentation is through plain vanilla html/css. My Apartment! And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for me as well. I think that gets to the heart of essays on the gender wage gap in, your comment. If your only tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.
Unfortunately this kind of work tends to be prohibitively expensive to do in academia, and rarely of interest in the business world.
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Spanish festival Moros y Cristianos where the effigy of the evil ‘La Mahoma’ is burnt every year. Countries invaded and occupied by Muslims never have any good memories from their days of history. It’s always the same theme: aggressive, violent Muslim invaders suddenly show up on their shores with thousands of on the wage, jihadists. They fill their times with slave raids and slaughters, looting, and rape of women and children. Young and start an argumentative essay with old are beheaded and ruled under barbarity and savagery, until eventually there is large battle for freedom. Spain lived under the Muslim yolk for over 800 years until the Christian Crusaders forced them out.
By that time the Muslims had scarred them both financially and psychologically, leaving only a shell of a country behind that has struggled to gap in return to its past glory prior to the pillages and slaughters. If you want to relive the Crusaders success over involvement essay, the barbaric Muslim invaders, Spain holds annual festivals on essays on the gender wage this happy occasion from history: Certain towns in southern Spain hold an annual festival called “ Moros y Cristianos ” (“Moors and Christians”), which celebrates the campus Reconquista — the recapture of the Iberian Peninsula by essays gender gap in, Christian Spaniards from the Muslim colonizers who had invaded centuries earlier. Essay My Apartment? In some locales, at the climax of the festival, townspeople take a huge effigy of essays on the gender finland, Mohammed and bring it to the top of walter kunstwerk, a building, throw it down and crush it and burn it. The Mohammed figure, called La Mahoma , is usually bigger than life-size and in full costume. But according to this site, some of the villages planned to tone down their historic annual celebrations by not having La Mahoma at all. Essays Gender Wage Gap In Finland? And artists in the city of kunstwerk, Valencia are now afraid to make sculptures that mock Mohammed in their annual satirical Fallas festival. In the old festival ‘Mohammed’ is taken captive, taken to a tall building where he is thrown off, his skull crushed, and on the wage gap in his body burnt. This magnificent festival should be emulated and celebrated all over the world. Moros y Cristianos or Moros i Cristians literally in English Moors and underlining texts Christians , is a set of festival activities which are celebrated in many towns and cities of essays finland, Spain, mainly in the southern Valencian Community. According to popular tradition the festivals commemorate the walter benjamin kunstwerk battles, combats and fights between Moors (or Muslims) and gender Christians during the period known as Reconquista (from the 8th century through the 15th century).
Parade of a Moors Ship in the beach of La Vila Joiosa, 2008. The festivals represent the capture of the city by the Moors and the subsequent Christian reconquest. Walter Essay? The people that take part in the festival are usually enlisted in filaes or comparsas (companies that represent the Christian or Moor legions). The festivals last for several days, and on the gender wage gap in finland feature parades with bombastic costumes loosely inspired by Medieval fashion. Christians wear fur, metallic helmets, and armor, fire loud arquebuses, and ride horses. In contrast, Moors wear ancient Arab costumes, carry scimitars, and ride real camels or elephants. The festival develops among shots of essay about, gunpowder, medieval music, and fireworks, and on the wage finland ends with the campus involvement essay Christians winning a simulated battle around a castle. The most well-known Moors and on the wage finland Christians festival takes place in walter benjamin kunstwerk essay, Alcoi (Valencian Community) from 22 to 24 April, around the Feast Day of Saint George.
According to legend, after James I of on the gap in, Aragon reconquered the city of Alcoi, the walter benjamin essay Moors, in turn, tried to recover it. As fighting was about to resume, Saint George miraculously appeared, and on the wage gap in the frightened Moors scattered in defeat. Other traditions ascribe a miraculous saintly appearance to Saint James ( Santiago ), particularly at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa—sometimes guiding the Christians to surprise the Moors; else rallying Christian forces during the battle. The feast day of St. Essay? James is July 25, so some of the Moors’ and Christians’ festivals occur at the end of July. La Vila Joiosa celebrates in the last week of July, with a reenactment of the Berber pirate attack of 1538 ( desembarc ), according to tradition repelled when St.
Martha (feast day 29 July) sent a flash flood. Especially in northern and western Spain, parades associated with Corpus Christi celebrations may feature gigantic costumed Moors and Christians, also commemorating the Reconquest. Other noteworthy Moors and Christians festivals are celebrated in the towns of Bocairent (Medieval town 1–5 February), Villena with approximately 12,000 participants (most crowded festival), Biar, Cocentaina, Crevillent (late September through October 4), El Campello, Elche, Elda, Muro d’Alcoi, Oliva (third weekend in essays on the gender wage finland, July), Ontinyent (late August), Orihuela, Petrer, Sax, Pollenca and difference between village some districts of Alicante city. One of the most ancient festivals is celebrated in Cocentaina (now in the Alicante province, but formerly in the Kingdom of essays gender wage gap in, Valencia), at involvement essay least since 1586. Andalusia also has very interesting Moors and Christians performances, especially in the former Moorish kingdom of Granada. Performances are mostly organized in rural towns and villages, such as Valor, Granada, a small pueblo in the Eastern Alpujarras. Spaniards took this tradition overseas. Essays On The? In the start an argumentative essay Philippines, fiestas often include a moro-moro play. The show begins with a parade of stars in on the gap in finland, colorful costumes: Christians wear blue costumes, while Moors wear fully ornamented red costumes.
Mexico, Guatemala, and Colombia also have festivals featuring Moors and Christians reenactments. The ship of the Muslim invaders and occupiers arrives on Spanish shores. Islamic state in 2015? No, just a re-inactment from Spanish history when Muslim jihadists invaded the shores of Spain with their swords drawn, ready to massacre and pillage. They brought converted African slaves and jihadists with them in thousands… … fighting on foot, horse, and elephant, slaughtering anyone in involvement, their path. Thousands of Muslims would pour into their country… … take it over, occupy it and on the gender gap in finland rule it under complete brutality, slavery and in essays violence.
… children belonging to educated parents were taken as slaves and trained to work for the Muslims to essays gender build their empire. … while millions of poor Spanish women and in another children who could not pay the jizya were captured as sex slaves and kept locked in essays gender wage, harems (Muslim bordellos). After hundreds of years of brutality, injustice and suffering the Christians from the North formed and army… … and began fighting back against the foreign occupiers and invaders. Millions fought and sacrificed their lives to expel the savage, brutal Muslim occupiers. The ultimate climax is finally revealed when the Christians bring the mass murderer, slave owner, invader and pedophile Mohammed’s effigy out…. …. and lead it through the streets to a high building.
… There Mohammed meets his final end by being thrown off the building, his skull crushed and his entire effigy burnt in total victory. This marvelous festival should be emulated and celebrated all over texts, the world. Let the world know and share this: 21 thoughts on “ Spanish festival Moros y Cristianos where the effigy of the evil ‘La Mahoma’ is burnt every year ” Turkish festival “Fetih 1453?…. every year….. Essays? Constantinople was Roman Hellenic for thousand years. to NATA [reply function of wordpress has failed. again] You avoided having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser – you answered criticism with criticism. Pronounced too-kwo-kwee. Literally translating as ‘you too’ this fallacy is also known as the appeal to hypocrisy. It is commonly employed as an effective red herring because it takes the heat off someone having to defend their argument, and instead shifts the focus back on to the person making the criticism.
There is in another country analysis essay, no moral equivalence to a quarter to a half million murders. Remember robbery, rape and murder are forbidden to essays wage gap in finland Christians, but scripturally mandatory for country analysis Muslims. The quarter billion plus Islamic body count speaks clearly. I’m nether lying nor trying to essays gender finland trick you. I want you research at your own initiative. It is important.
Remember the essay good Christians. Murdered raped and rubbed the gap in finland entire Latin America and the Africa and the entire continent of Asia? Remember that too? Read a good world history before trying to impose your opinions public ally. I only commented on the way you had posted a historical event during 15 century.
I realized you have hidden behind this post ( supposed ) for learning with bunch of start an argumentative essay, biget comments which ruined the purpose of the post . Using your own measuring stick would be fair to call all the nations who were colonized by abusing, murdering, looting,raping and most of all suppressing them forcing their religion and particularly their language (spain is a good example of all I said) on them to be called the gender wage rapist and murderes? Think first and do not mix subjects of the 15 century with current events The current events ISIS and campus involvement essay likes like them did not. Exist in 15 century, and can not be attributed to 2 billion Muslims on eart. Just the same way no one should hold Christa s of our contemporary time to be responsible for the crimes they did when colonized the nations, or the attacks they started in the name of God as crusaders (by the essays finland way Spain had a big role in it) they looted, killed, and raped the campus essay Middle East . Wage? Vatican museum is in essays, filled with what those crusaders brought back with them. You said what you insisted and I said my reply to you and not trying to escape any part of the history. Your original title of the post was not ISIS but the Spanish festival. Essays Gender Gap In Finland? My first posting also made it clear I was speaking about that histrical event. Benjamin Kunstwerk Essay? Have a great time. I approve of the liberation of Iberia.
I want all of on the wage gap in, Early Christendom back. I look forward to hanging Imams in Constantinople. Essay? I want all of North Africa returned to the Christians. All of Persia returned to the Zoroastrians, All of the subcontinent returned to the Hindus and Buddhists. The same for wage gap in Malaya and Indonesia.
I want the Moros rousted from campus involvement Mindanao. I want every fucking Muslim on the planet rounded up from the lands they’ve stolen over the centuries and confined to the Arabian peninsula, where I hope they (and that probably includes you) never bother the civilized world again. Do you understand now? Yes I clearly understood you the very first time through the bigotry comments it was so obvious …here is my suggestion to you. start another website and do not hide or fake it under historical facts but simply call it (quoting your own words) “I want every fucking Muslim on the planet rounded up from the on the gender finland lands.” I promise you will get thousands of like minded people like yourself so you do not need to fake anything and bring in the history. By the way, I caught you good and that is why you are really impolite and angry …a person like you with such short temper and uninformed about the world history does not need to act logical, or reasonable or even remotely intelligent (which you are not), ….I figured that out can you start an argumentative essay, about you, is a waste of time to try to get you to answer or admit logically when I posed those questions to you. Unfortunately, you sound too much like Trump, and essays gap in I do not want to start essay with a question hear anymore stupid and illogical conversation…..Now Enjoy yourself and you do not need to reply. … rounded up from the lands they’ve stolen … Editing quotations is a form of lying.
Every Square meter Islam occupies outside of gender wage finland, Arabia has been stolen. There are no exceptions. Islam is a fourteen century long crime wave. Difference Between Village And City? Your complaints are ex cathedra and mendacious. Your entire submission is a propaganda piece to somehow curtail criticism of Islam.
And you are right to on the wage finland worry. Many millions of Westerners are wising up. It could be sooner than you think. Imagine a USofA without a singleton mosque, no MSAs on our campuses, and between essay all Muslim Brotherhood moles in prison or deported with the rest as stateless undesirables. This will make us the envy of the on the wage world and a model as the Free World de-Islamizes. “Imagine a USofA without a singleton mosque”. Sounds like a paradise. You avoided having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser – you answered criticism with criticism. Pronounced too-kwo-kwee.
Literally translating as ‘you too’ this fallacy is also known as the appeal to hypocrisy. It is commonly employed as an an argumentative essay effective red herring because it takes the essays gap in finland heat off someone having to defend their argument, and instead shifts the focus back on to the person making the criticism. https://yourlogicalfallacyis.com/tu-quoque. There is analysis, no moral equivalence to a quarter to a half million murders. I was looking forward to learning something new from a historical perspective, unfortunately, the bigotry of the author with his often personal comments ruined it. Essays On The Finland? Keep those ugly comments away from your writing so you could appear more intelligent. What you call bigotry is the seasoned opinion of, probably, an apostate from Islam redundantly familiar with Islam’s history.
There is ample reason for texts in essays the ugliness you dislike. The truth, beautiful or ugly, remains the truth. And the history of Islam is very ugly. I note you do not challenge the essays gap in finland article’s veracity. You avoided having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser – you answered criticism with criticism. Pronounced too-kwo-kwee.
Literally translating as ‘you too’ this fallacy is also known as the difference between village and city essay appeal to hypocrisy. It is on the gap in finland, commonly employed as an effective red herring because it takes the heat off someone having to defend their argument, and involvement instead shifts the focus back on to the person making the criticism. https://yourlogicalfallacyis.com/tu-quoque. There is no moral equivalence to a quarter to on the gender a half million murders. You avoided having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser – you answered criticism with criticism. Pronounced too-kwo-kwee. Literally translating as ‘you too’ this fallacy is also known as the appeal to hypocrisy.
It is commonly employed as an effective red herring because it takes the heat off someone having to difference between village defend their argument, and instead shifts the focus back on to the person making the criticism. There is no moral equivalence to a quarter to a half million murders. Remember robbery, rape and murder are forbidden to Christians, but scripturally mandatory for Muslims. The quarter billion plus Islamic body count speaks clearly. Spain colonized many nations with violence and enforced their religion and gender wage finland their culture upon them that is start essay a question, no different than what happened in Spain by muslims. The entire south and essays finland Latin America is a living example for their violence brought to the native population. You must be balanced in your writings if your intention is to inform for the sake of knowledge unless your aim is to spread your bigotry and hate wrapped in a misguided packaging. There is no innocent party here all is the way we make Hero out of the same people who killed more than half of the population and raped their women in the name of their God on the other side of the world. tu quoque ; You avoided having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser – you answered criticism with criticism.
Whether the tabulated Islamic body count is descriptive my apartment, 270,000,000 or almost twice that, how could anyone suggest moral equivalence? The human population of our planet didn’t reach a billion till 1800, by on the gender wage finland, then they’d butchered a quarter billion? https://themuslimissue.wordpress.com/2015/06/15/muslims-have-killed-over-590-million-non-muslims-since-the-birth-of-mohammed/ Your ignorance is underlining, either feigned, or you have a lot of catching up to do. You avoided having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser – you answered criticism with criticism. Pronounced too-kwo-kwee. Literally translating as ‘you too’ this fallacy is also known as the essays on the gender finland appeal to hypocrisy. It is commonly employed as an effective red herring because it takes the heat off someone having to defend their argument, and instead shifts the an argumentative essay with focus back on to the essays gender person making the criticism. There is no moral equivalence to a quarter to a half million murders.
You avoided having to engage with criticism by campus essay, turning it back on the accuser – you answered criticism with criticism. Pronounced too-kwo-kwee. Literally translating as ‘you too’ this fallacy is also known as the appeal to hypocrisy. It is commonly employed as an effective red herring because it takes the heat off someone having to defend their argument, and instead shifts the focus back on essays on the gender finland to the person making the criticism. There is no moral equivalence to a quarter to a half million murders. Islam is different. Robberies, rapes and start an argumentative with murders are in violation of on the wage gap in, Christian ethos. The distinction is in another country, absolute, because robberies, rapes and murders are in fulfillment of finland, Muslim ethos.
Islam reserves the highest reward, “the Paradise”, for those who rob, rape, kill and walter benjamin kunstwerk maim so that Allah alone is worshipped. Please think about essays gender wage it. I’m not lying and I’m not trying to trick you. I’m trying to recruit you to a counter-jihad viewpoint by underlining, encouraging you to research this upon your own initiative. It couldn’t be more important. With one percent of on the gender, our population Muslim, constant attacks are now normal. I want Islam expelled, and that won’t happen till millions of campus, Americans concur.
And that will happen if enough people understand the monstrous ideology poised against us. I’ve removed hyperlinks to get this small monograph to post. You avoided having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser – you answered criticism with criticism. Pronounced too-kwo-kwee. Literally translating as ‘you too’ this fallacy is also known as the appeal to hypocrisy. Essays On The Gap In? It is commonly employed as an effective red herring because it takes the heat off someone having to defend their argument, and instead shifts the focus back on to the person making the criticism.
There is no moral equivalence to a quarter to a half million murders. Remember robbery, rape and murder are forbidden to Christians, but scripturally mandatory for Muslims. The quarter billion plus Islamic body count speaks clearly. Sadly, in in another country essay, this world at this time we can’t even remember the atrocities of the last 24-hrs. I would love to see that. Published under FAIR USE of factual content citing US 17 U.S.C. § 107 fair use protection, Section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976 and UK Section 30(1) of the 1988 Act.
Cancel reply. [Note: News are real life events and they are categorized as fact and is not copyrightable] (Note: Link redirects to YouTube.) I have fabricated things against God and have imputed to Him words which He has not spoken. -- Al-Tabari, The History of Al-Tabari, vol. vi, p. 111. -- Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah, p. Gap In Finland? 166.
-- Sahih al-Bukhari 2977, (on Jihaad), Book 56, Hadith 186. Video: Saudi father auctions his son for suicide mission in Syria.
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ajpe cover letter The American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education is pleased to offer electronic publication of wage gap in finland accepted manuscripts prior to print publication. In Another Essay. Disclaimer : Articles posted in essays on the gender wage finland, the publication ahead-of-print section have undergone peer review and been accepted by start with, the Journal’s editor. However, they have not been copyedited . Wage. Any copyediting changes to an article will be reflected in the final electronic version appearing in the Journal. Texts In Essays. The American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education editor and staff are not responsible or liable for the use of any potentially inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or information that may be contained within the articles found in the publication ahead-of-print section of the AJPE website. South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina. a Faculty of on the wage Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Finland. b Kuopio Research Centre of Geriatric Care, University of descriptive about my apartment Kuopio, Finland. c Department of wage gap in Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Kuopio, Finland. a LECOM School of Pharmacy. b Campbell University School of Pharmacy. c National Drug and Poison Information Center, Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. To the Editor: Most clinicians have been exposed to, or are aware of, the existence of Wikipedia, the texts in essays world's most popular wiki project. The online encyclopedia Wikipedia offers the advantage of an open-access library of information that can be authored or edited with little delay by gender gap in, anyone with Internet access. Benjamin Kunstwerk Essay. 1 Alternatively, wikis (and their accompanying software programs) may serve as a useful tool in essays gender gap in, health sciences education and research. A wiki can serve as an “expert pharmacy community” in an online format, fully supported through a collaborative effort by its members. Utilization of wiki technology specifically for pharmacy-related education is in another country essay limited and its use in pharmacy education has not been well documented.
Mirk et al presented information on pharmacy students’ prior experience with wikis, but their opinions on their use and impact in a pharmacy education setting are unknown. 6 At the South Carolina College of Pharmacy on the campus of the University of on the gender finland South Carolina (SCCP-USC), 3 faculty members utilize wiki technology during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Online tools for advancing education and training in health sciences have been used for over a decade, although use of wikis is a more recent development. 2 Ciesielka described the use of a community wiki in nursing education at Clarion University. 3 The students far exceeded course expectations and village and city continued to contribute to the wiki even after grades were assigned. Essays On The Gender Wage Gap In Finland. Students were given substantial autonomy and start a question responded positively to the experience, suggesting it greatly facilitated teamwork and wage allowed them to “see the big picture.” 3 Incorporation of in another country wikis into medical education has also been documented in a gross anatomy course at the Mayo Medical School. 4 Given an essays gender wage gap in, anatomical outcome, students were instructed to utilize a wiki to design a clinically relevant case. Pre- and post-assessments demonstrated a significant increase in students’ confidence in start an argumentative essay, identifying appropriate diagnostic procedures, discerning differential diagnoses and potential treatments, and delivering an oral presentation of the clinical case.
4. The use of wikis in health sciences expands beyond education into the research arena, as biology databases have begun to utilize wiki technology. 5 In conjunction with his biologics company, Knewco, Barend Mons has launched a Web site, www.wikiprofessional.org, with the goal of essays gender wage finland creating a single, interlinked, biomedical database supporting vital research in genetic and protein modeling for many scientists. The use of wikis may be embraced soon by publishing companies seeking a move to an online format. A wiki format offers the difference village essay advantage of continuous online group editing done in essays wage, real time, minimizing inherent delays and costs. Over the past year, 3 faculty members at SCCP-USC have used wikis to enhance the student experience during APPEs, but student opinions on their use are unknown.
These wikis were setup through Google Wikis (http://www.google.com/sites/), a free online service. Students participate in a 4- week APPE in an acute care setting focused in internal medicine/infectious diseases, critical care, and/or hematology/oncology. The students create and use wiki entries to answer daily questions that arise during interdisciplinary rounds or stemming from patient-specific and evidence-based care decisions. Walter. Additionally, disease-state reviews are created by essays on the gender, the students to provide comprehensive information on key topics. In situations where information on the wiki related to a topic already exists, students are asked to review, edit, and underlining texts expand on the work of their peers. The initial use of wikis required some Web site creation and design, but following that, entries have been exclusively student created. Since using wikis is new to many students, we provide some initial instruction on the types and expectations for essays wage gap in, content as well as training in “how to” of the Web site. During the walter first few days of the APPE, students are somewhat reluctant to add entries to the wiki, but reminders to add specific information are well-received.
However, once the students are comfortable with the essays on the wage gap in wiki site, they are eager to descriptive essay my apartment add new and update existing information. Thirty students have utilized the on the gender wage wiki over the past 9 months, with 4 students using wikis on multiple APPEs. In order to assess the essay about impact of the wiki on student learning and overall perception, a survey was administered with answers based on a 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly agree; 5=strongly disagree), with additional space for comments. The survey was administered anonymously online using SurveyMonkey (surveymonkey.com). All students using wikis on APPEs were invited to participate, with 16 students responding to the survey (response rate = 61.5%). Overall, opinions on the survey were positive with greater than 90% of respondents either strongly agreeing or agreeing that wikis helped reinforce concepts and ideas and that they enjoyed working with wikis while on APPEs. Many students (approximately 70%, 11/16) believed that the use of wikis helped create a sense of collegiality and strengthened professional relationships with peers. In addition, a question aimed at gender, gauging students’ interest in using wikis in other areas of pharmacy education had a favorable response with approximately 90% of students strongly agreeing or agreeing that they would like to underlining texts in essays see wikis and other online tools employed in gender wage, other areas of pharmacy education. Students gave generally favorable responses to questions gauging their attitudes towards using previously written wiki entries to help review APPE concepts and assessing how the wiki helped them reflect on in another country analysis essay clerkship concepts.
Student comments regarding the use of wikis detailed how they were enjoyable and helped enhance concept understanding. One student reported that they “enjoyed working on on the gender wage finland pages for the wiki. [They] felt like they were a good tool to campus use to help reinforce concepts introduced during the rotation, especially in finland, thinking critically to break the concept down into start essay a question, palatable pieces…” Another student stated that, “the wiki forced [them] to finland put concepts into [their] own words, and as a result enhanced understanding.” Critics of wikis have commented that open access leads to the possibility of inaccuracies in user contributions. In the medical arena, this could involve potential hazards leading to patient harm. An analysis of online content in Wikipedia compared to Encyclopedia Britannica found little difference in overall accuracy. 7 At SCCP, faculty members serve as editors for campus, the APPE wikis. Whenever activity occurs on the wiki, a post is made on essays gender gap in the announcement page allowing preceptors and students to underlining follow any edits or updates. Currently, our wikis are only available to on the students as contributors who have been or are currently enrolled in the APPE. Walter Kunstwerk Essay. This helps to on the alleviate copyright and in another country liability concerns and controlling for unknown additions to on the wage gap in finland the wiki pages. Our overall experiences with wikis have been positive, and difference village and city we feel that they provide an opportunity for students to practice critical thinking and writing skills and promote professional collegiality. We have found the use of wikis to be a useful tool in experiential education, and student responses indicate that they may be helpful in other areas of essays on the wage pharmacy education.
Incorporation of wiki technology into didactic elective courses is also being researched and evaluated by the same faculty members. These data will be forthcoming in a future publication. April D. Miller, PharmD P. Brandon Bookstaver, PharmD LeAnn B. Norris, PharmD South Carolina College of Pharmacy-University of South Carolina. Walter Benjamin Kunstwerk. To the Editor : Services provided by pharmacists are well-suited for optimizing the use of medications for mental illness. 1 However, lack of mental health education is an on the finland, important barrier to the provision of pharmacy services. 2,3 Suboptimal attitudes toward people with mental illness are common among pharmacists and pharmacy students. 4,5 There are few studies describing pharmacy education about depression, schizophrenia, and substance abuse. A recent study in the Journal reported the teaching of psychiatry-related topics at US colleges and schools of pharmacy. 6 However, no corresponding studies have investigated mental health pharmacy education in campus, Europe. Gender Wage Gap In. With this in about, mind, we conducted a preliminary assessment of mental health pharmacy education provided at European universities.
A 20-item online survey instrument was developed using E-lomake software (Eduix Oy, Tampere, Finland). The survey instrument was adapted from survey instruments used to assess mental health pharmacy education at US colleges and schools of pharmacy, 6 and depression education at essays gap in, medical schools in the Asia-Pacific region. 7 The survey instrument was divided into 5 sections. Section 1 included 5 items about the respondents and their school of pharmacy. Section 2 included 6 items about the overall course content in relation to mental health. Section 3, 4, and essay 5 included 3 items each related to education about gender wage gap in, depression, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders. The survey and functionality of the E-lomake software was pilot tested for face-validity among a convenience sample of native and non-native English speaking educators. The survey, cover letter, and participant information sheet were emailed to an academic staff member from 30 schools of pharmacy across Europe in between, December 2008. The pharmacy schools were a convenience sample but were selected to essays on the wage gap in cover a range of descriptive essay about sizes and country locations.
All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 15.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Responses were received from 16 pharmacy schools in Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom (response rate 53%). Eleven of the respondents were lecturers or associate professors. Fourteen universities were publicly funded and 9 had an undergraduate student enrollment of more than 400 students. All universities taught psychiatry-related topics as part of a therapeutics-based course. Six universities employed or contracted a specialist mental health pharmacist to provide teaching, and 5 universities considered psychiatric pharmacy to be the content focus of their curriculum. All universities provided teaching about depression, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders via didactic lectures (Table 1). Two universities also provided the opportunity for students to participate in a psychiatric pharmacy clerkship to learn about depression and schizophrenia. Depression was taught for essays on the gender finland, an average of 24 contact teaching hours per university degree. Schizophrenia and essay about my apartment substance use disorders were taught for an average of 18 and 13 contact teaching hours per essays wage gap in finland, degree, respectively.
View larger version (27K) Table 1. Number and Percentage of 16 European Universities Offering Various Formats of Education about Depression, Schizophrenia, and Substance Use Disorders. Our preliminary survey was the first to essay about quantify the content, format, and gender duration of mental health pharmacy education provided at European universities. Our survey revealed considerable differences in mental health pharmacy education offered in Europe and the United States. Only 2 (13%) European universities that responded offered an elective internship in psychiatric pharmacy compared to 92% of universities in the United States. 6 Only 6 (38%) European universities that responded employed or contracted a specialist mental health pharmacist to provide teaching, compared to 76% in the United States. These differences may be due to differences in mental health pharmacy practice in Europe and the United States. Pharmacists are able to can you start an argumentative essay with a question undergo postgraduate specialization in mental health pharmacy in both the gender wage United States and United Kingdom, but not in most continental European countries.
Despite these differences there were also several similarities. All of the responding universities in Europe and the United States offered psychiatric topics as part of a therapeutics-based course. In addition, no universities in Europe and descriptive my apartment only 4% of on the gender wage universities in the United States required students to campus undertake a psychiatric pharmacy internship. Didactic lectures were the most common teaching method in relation to essays wage finland depression, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders. Texts In Essays. However, didactic lectures alone may not change students’ attitudes towards people with mental illness. 8 Encouragingly, some universities combined didactic lectures with interactive education, including small-group tutorials, role-playing, problem-based learning (PBL), and having actual patients present about their experiences. PBL in essays on the gap in, medical education has been adopted at different rates across Europe. Descriptive Essay About. 9 Our findings suggest that the same may be true of pharmacy education. Five universities included teaching about sufferer's experience of depression and schizophrenia, and 4 about sufferer's experience of substance use disorders.
Having actual patients present about their experience may improve students’ attitudes toward people with mental illness. 8,10 This format of education may also improve pharmacists’ confidence to provide services to people with mental illness. 11. There are a number of methodological strengths and limitations to our study. We included universities from south, central, and northern Europe. However, the on the gender sample size of universities was relatively small.
As with the US survey, it was possible that those universities with a research or teaching interest in mental health were more likely to respond. Underlining Texts In Essays. Determining the duration of contact teaching may have been difficult when material about depression, schizophrenia, or substance use disorders was taught as part of general courses on gender gap in finland pharmacology, using patient case studies or during internships. In addition, our research did not assess the duration of non-contact teaching, nor the content, format, and duration of education provided at the postgraduate level. In conclusion, there are considerable differences in the content, format, and duration of education provided in Europe and the United States. Descriptive. There is also considerable variation in mental health pharmacy education across Europe. There is a need to develop core competencies and minimum standards for the provision of mental health pharmacy education at the European and national levels. Our survey highlights the need for a larger European study to determine whether the education provided at European universities adequately prepares pharmacists to provide mental health care services. To the Editor . We question the rationale and evidence that has placed a disproportional emphasis on clinical experience, at the expense of the basic sciences, in on the wage gap in finland, doctor of a question pharmacy (PharmD) programs in essays gap in finland, the United States. Pharmacy education has evolved over the past 20 years to the point that “clinical experience” may be viewed as paramount by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). Recently, the accreditation requirements for advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) have been increased from 30 to 36 weeks in involvement essay, the United States and now occupy one-quarter of the essays gender wage finland typical 4-year PharmD curriculum.
1 During a recent accreditation visit, when ACPE staff evaluators were directly asked for difference between essay, substantial evidence to support the change from 30 to 36 weeks for better education outcomes for pharmacy students, none could be provided. The fact that the accreditation body for gender, US pharmacy programs lacks objective evidence is troubling. Pharmacy, at least in the past, was viewed in the United States as a science-based profession. Recently, some have commented that the diminishment of science has encouraged a trade school mentality in pharmacy programs and essay with marks a return to apprenticeship training reminiscent of the 19 th century rather than the education of pharmacy professionals. 2,3.
Examining the Drug Topics 2008 list of the Top 200 Brand Name Drugs dispensed in the United States, esomeprazole (Nexium), escitalopram (Lexapro), and montelukast (Singulair) were ranked numbers 2, 3, and 4 as the most frequently dispensed drugs. 4 This indicates that these 3 drugs are considered the standards of clinical practice, at least numerically, for their respective indications. Number 2 on the US Top 200 list for 2008 is esomeprazole (Nexium). The Description Section of the package insert states that esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole. Essays On The. 5 Omeprazole is available as an over-the-counter (nonprescription) drug in the United States. In the benjamin kunstwerk essay Clinical Studies section of the package insert, focusing on the 5 trials described for treating Symptomatic Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), 2 of the trials were multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Esomeprazole was significantly better than placebo. In the essays on the gender remaining 3 GERD trials, esomeprazole 20 mg and 40 mg and omeprazole 20 mg were evaluated. No significant treatment related differences were seen. Underlining. There are no claims of superiority in gender wage gap in, the package insert that esomeprazole is superior to other proton pump inhibitors, including omeprazole, for the treatment of symptomatic GERD. Escitalopram is number 3 on the Drug Topics list for 2008.
Using the Internet and DailyMed to can you start an argumentative essay with access the package insert, the Description section for on the gap in finland, the drug notes that escitalopram is the texts pure S-enantiomer of racemic citalopram. Patients who have been prescribed citalopram since it was first approved in on the finland, the United States in July 1998 are also getting escitalopram. 6. The package insert explains that the efficacy of escitalopram was established in 3 placebo controlled trials using the change from baseline to endpoint in the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) as the primary outcome measure. However, 4 trials are actually described in the package insert. A recent report in the New England Journal of Medicine reveals that 4 trials were in fact submitted to the FDA, but only the in another country essay 3 with statistically positive results were published. Essays On The Finland. The forth trial did not show a statistical difference between escitalopram and placebo and has not been published.
7 No claims of superiority over any other antidepressant including citalopram appear in in another country essay, the package insert for escitalopram. On The Gender Gap In Finland. In the package insert for the number 4 drug on the Drug Topics Top 200 list, montelukast, the Clinical Studies section communicates information about 5 seasonal allergic rhinitis clinical trials. In 4 of in another analysis essay these 5 trials there was a significant reduction in on the wage, daytime nasal symptoms scores with montelukast compared to placebo. Three of the 5 trials showed similar results. The fourth trial was not discussed, and it may be assumed that montelukast could not be differentiated from placebo.
The last trial used loratadine 10 mg as the active comparator. Loratadine was numerically superior to montelukast in day time nasal symptoms score (the average of underlining in essays individual scores of nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, sneezing) as assessed by patients on a 0–3 categorical scale. 8. The prescribing of esomeprazole, escitalopram, and montelukast in the US in 2008 suggests the acceptance of these drugs by US prescribers as the standard of practice for their approved uses, despite evidence from randomized controlled trials that these drugs may be no better or not as good as other older medications. This suggests indirectly that the prescribing of these drugs may not be science based. Pharmaceutical industry promotion may be 1 possible explanation for the high rate of prescribing these 3 drugs; another possible contributing factor is a failure of on the wage clinicians’ didactic education in the areas of how to critically interpret clinical research; the drug regulatory process; and the uncomfortable history of underlining texts drug safety disasters. In the clinical setting, a pharmacy student, who has completed a required APPE at a prestigious medical center, local hospital, or local community pharmacy, remembers that Drug X was widely prescribed and essays on the gender wage gap in finland therefore must be the standard of practice everywhere. There may be future negative educational outcomes if the start essay a question student decides on a career in academics. The new assistant professor brings “clinical experience” misconceptions to the classroom and Drug X, as the on the gender finland standard of essay practice, is inappropriately perpetuated in the next generation of pharmacists. A serious question should be addressed by pharmacy educators in and outside of the United States: should pharmacy students attend required APPEs before attaining the scientific education necessary to differentiate between prescribing decisions based on essays on the wage gap in finland scientific evidence from well-controlled clinical trials and the Hussey-Stetler Test of descriptive my apartment Time, “clinical experience”? A position that has long been expressed, but apparently ignored by the vast majority of pharmacy educators, is that statistical literacy and the education to wage finland critically evaluate clinical research, are basic clinical skills that are as important as proficiency with a sphygmomanometer.
9. Campus Essay. Evidence is lacking that increasing the experiential requirement of essays on the gap in finland Pharm D curricula in the United States from 30 to 36 weeks produces better-educated pharmacy graduates. The public and the profession of pharmacy may be better served if the 36-week requirement for in another essay, advanced experiential training were cut to essays on the gender gap in 18 weeks of high quality experiences, and the remaining time replaced with 18 weeks of difference village essay didactic education focusing on the science of drug literature evaluation, the history of on the finland drug tragedies, and drug regulatory standards.
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Employment: Gender wage gap
Describing A Basketball Game Essays and essays on the wage Research Papers. Basketball is country analysis, a very popular sport worldwide.Basketball is now the essays second most popular sport in the world. Campus Involvement? Women's basketball is . also a popular sport, even though it does not receive nearly as much attention as men's basketball . Basketball has been played in the Summer Olympic Games since 1936. HISTORY In early December 1891, James Naismith, a Canadian physical education teacher at essays on the gender Springfield College in Springfield, Massachusetts invented an indoor game called basketball . He invented the sport. Basketball , Basketball terminology , College basketball 2727 Words | 7 Pages. High school basketball is not only a mental sport, but, also, a communication game . You must be able to village essay, communicate very well to . Essays Wage Finland? play in essay, Morgantown, West Virginia, especially at University High School. To make the essays on the gap in finland team, you have to be basketball knowledgeable, talented, physically fit, and vocal. Descriptive? After four years of playing varsity basketball , the vocal part of the sport has helped me out in the long run. There are five positions in basketball : point guard, shooting guard, small forward, power. American Basketball Association , Basketball , Basketball position 1450 Words | 4 Pages.
Callahan Coach Cook BASKETBALL The American sport of basketball has come a long way since it was invented by James Naismith . in on the gender gap in, 1891. Originally, the game was played with a soccer ball and peach baskets instead of a backboard and rim. There were no holes in the baskets and a ladder was used to retrieve the ball if it did stay in the basket. There were about fifty players on descriptive opposing teams and players who committed fouls were sent to on the wage finland, a hockey-like penalty box. Today the game has changed tremendously.
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I was still very proud of my team. American Basketball Association , Basketball , Game 815 Words | 2 Pages. Basketball has been a part of my life since I was eleven years old. To me basketball isn't just a sport, but a stress relief from . schoolwork and a place where I can just be myself. Anytime I start to feel the stress of school, my family problems or work, I always use basketball as my way of getting away. The moment I step out onto can you start essay with the court I feel refreshed. My mind warps into gender finland this place of peace and I feel like I can do anything. I even sometimes believe that basketball is in my blood. Start Essay A Question? I. Basketball , Game , Games 663 Words | 2 Pages. The Evolution of on the gender wage gap in finland, Basketball Basketball has been played over 100 years and it is one of the most widely . played sports in the world.
James A. Naismith started basketball in December 1891. He tried to difference between village and city essay, make a sport that would be played between football and baseball seasons. It should be indoors, due to essays on the gender wage gap in finland, the weather. He made the rules on can you start with a question December 21, 1891. Naismith declined the essays on the gender gap in finland name Naismith ball. A player suggested the name of basketball . Naismith wanted two square crates but.
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Basketball was invented on December 21, 1891. . The inventor of the game was a Canadian clergyman, James Naismith (Joseph Morse, 1973). Gender Wage? br brThe game of basketball was fashioned from fragments of other games , seeking to eliminate flaws of indoor rugby, soccer and lacrosse. Difference Village Essay? Naismith also borrowed aspects from the children's game Duck-on-a-Rock, in which children tried to knock off a rock from a boulder by tossing smaller rocks. Basketball , Boston Celtics , Harlem Globetrotters 2439 Words | 7 Pages. are popular - and extremely profitable - a growing number of psychologists and neuroscientists believe they may be doing more harm than good. Educational . psychologist Jane Healy believes children should be kept away from computer games until they are seven. Essays On The Gap In? Most games only trigger the essay 'flight or fight' region of the brain, rather than the vital areas responsible for reasoning. Sue Palmer, author of Toxic Childhood, said: 'We are seeing children's brain development damaged because they don't engage. Bebo , Facebook , LinkedIn 881 Words | 3 Pages. Basketball has become a nationwide played sport ; there are multiple leagues in basketball now and today. . Basketball originated in Springfield Massachusetts by a Canadian physician at Ymca professional which is now and todays Springfield College!
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How many times did the difference between village and city essay Boston Celtics win the NBA championship . Essays Gender Wage Gap In Finland? between 1957 and 1969? A: 11. Q: How many NBA titles did Magic Johnson help the campus essay Lakers win as a player? A: Five. Q: What NBA hoopster is essays on the gender wage gap in finland, known as The Worm? A: Dennis Rodman. Q: What NBA coach got cosmic by penning the Zen book Sacred Hoops: Spiritual Lessons of a Hardwood Warrior? A: Phil Jackson Who invented the involvement first basketball used in an official. Basketball , Boston Celtics , Chicago Bulls 1484 Words | 6 Pages. greatest sports in the world is goes by essays on the gender wage gap in finland the name of essay, basketball . This great game was invented by James Naismith December of 1891. Essays On The Gender Wage Gap In? . James Naismith was a physician from country, Canada and attended McGill’s University in Montreal, Canada. After working as McGill’s Athletic director he went to Springfield, Massachusetts.
He introduced the game when he was an essays wage gap in, instructor at the Young Men Christian Association Training School in Springfield. He created the game because he needed to between village and city essay, think of something the kids would. Basketball , Boston Celtics , Chicago Bulls 2434 Words | 6 Pages. Basketball and Life There are a lot of different components to the game of basketball . Some people just think you . take a basketball , run around the court and shoot it into the hoop. They don't realize what a toll these actions take on the human body.
Fitness is finland, very important not only in the game of basketball , but also life as a whole. Heart disease is still one of the top killers in essay, the United States and on the gap in finland that can be combated by exercise. Obesity is another big problem that we need to take a closer. Adipose tissue , Cardiac muscle , Health 1092 Words | 3 Pages. History of Basketball Who is known world-wide as the inventor of basketball ? His name is Dr. James Naismith, he was born in . 1861 in in another analysis, Almonte, Ontario. Wage Gap In Finland? Most people wonder were a young man would think of a game like basketball . The concept of basketball was born from his school days in the area where he played a simple child's game known as duck-on-a-rock outside his one-room schoolhouse. The game involved attempting to knock a duck off the top of texts, a large rock by tossing another rock at gender it.
Basketball , Basketball Hall of Fame , International Basketball Federation 742 Words | 3 Pages. Tino Estose WA #4 16 April 2013 Basketball (Mechanics of the game , College, and Professional) Social Media (Twitter and . Facebook), Television, Basketball Video Games Factors about the medium | Factors about the underlining texts message | Factors about the audience | -The most prominent characteristic of at essays on the gap in least two of these particular mediums (Twitter and Sports Television) is the with delivery of on the finland, information. These two genres are specifically instant in terms of delivering information or whatever message. Audience , Carla Espinosa , Elliot Reid 1071 Words | 3 Pages. History of Basketball 5-26-2011 Monica Parker Monica Parker HUM 1101 Jones 5-26-2011 History of . Basketball Basketball is a very well liked sport by most of the world.
I love basketball . Underlining? Well I love the Chicago Bulls. But where did basketball start? When did basketball start? Who came up with this sport? What are the rules of Basketball and how have they changed? And what are the positions players play? Basketball to my surprise wasn’t invented by a group.
Basketball , Free throw , International Basketball Federation 1177 Words | 3 Pages. He was a remarkably versatile and humble man who in 1891 invented a game that is now played by more people than any game in the . world (Encyclopedia, Britannica 2012). James Naismith is essays wage gap in, best known for the invention of the game we call “ basketball .” While Naismith did not benefit financially from his invention, he was afforded a glimpse of the game’s potential appeal in descriptive about, 1936 when he attended the Berlin Olympics, where basketball was played as a medal sport for the first time (McPhee, John 2009). He. Basketball , Basketball Hall of on the wage gap in, Fame , FIBA Hall of in another analysis essay, Fame 994 Words | 3 Pages. ?Talha Syed October 2nd, 2014 Speech Professor Ratcliffe Basketball : The Greatest Sport Invented (Outline) General Purpose: To inform . Specific Purpose: To inform the on the gender wage finland audience about the history, basic rules, and the development of basketball . Introduction Attention Getter: There is no “I” in campus involvement essay, team, but there is in wIn. Essays On The Gap In? This is benjamin, a quote from the 6x NBA Champion, Michael Jordan. Thesis: The game of Basketball is a very exciting sport. You need to be able to communicate with your teammates. Basketball , Dribbling , International Basketball Federation 697 Words | 3 Pages.
Self-Presentation General purpose: how basketball taught me hard work and discipline Specific purpose: hard work can help . achieve anything Thesis statement through basketball I learned how to work hard and discipline myself to achieve my goals in wage, life My passion for the basketball started when I was in my second year of high school, basketball not only helped me grow but also taught me a lot of. Basketball , College , High school 443 Words | 3 Pages. Rodriguez Professor Bruner English 110 A 17 November 9, 2011 All for in another country analysis essay, the Love of the Game “All is essays gap in finland, fair in love and walter . basketball ”. In the movie “Love and Basketball ”, two main social issues occurred which caused a plethora of problems for the two main characters. Discrimination and relationship issues are two highly ranked social issues in the world today. They were incorporated in the movie “Love and Basketball ” to help advertise their importance. On The Gender Wage? Interviews, research and between personal experiences have. Basketball , College basketball , Discrimination 1425 Words | 5 Pages. 5 positions in basketball By Rohim Dang Introduction Open with impact: “looking at the clock its only 6.7 seconds left and essays on the wage finland we down by 2, my . point guard dribbles the ball down the court, try to kunstwerk essay, look for the open man but everyone was guarded heavily so he calls a timeout with 3 secs left……” Credibility statement: I love and enjoy playing the game of basketball so I would like to share with you the information I discovered. Thesis statement: The game of basketball is a recreational sport that. Basketball , Basketball position , Gary Payton 723 Words | 3 Pages.
? 94Fifty Basketball Nathaniel Pittman Connor Cather Business Technology 4/19/2014 Contents Executive . Summary 3 Description of Product 4 History 6 Competition 6 Production/ Implementation 7 Personal Assessment 7 Appendix 8 Works Cited 9 Executive Summary The 94Fifty Basketball measures muscles memory that the human eye can’t see. This ball learns the strengths and weaknesses of an individual player at any level of the game as it studies the movement. Baseball , Basketball , Dribbling 1085 Words | 4 Pages. Informative Speech About Basketball. Outline Topic: Basketball Central Idea: inform the essays on the wage history, rules and development of basketball Thesis Statement: The . game of Basketball is very exhilarating and will keep your adrenaline plumbing. Difference Village And City? Communication and Strategic thinking is the key to on the gender wage gap in, teamwork. Hence you will need the difference village and city essay help of essays on the finland, your teammates to deliver a good pass to in another country analysis, you to be able to essays gender finland, score the ball into the basket. Can You Start An Argumentative Essay? I. Introduction “To be successful you have to essays wage gap in, be selfish, or else you never achieve. And once you get to your. Association football , Basketball , FIBA World Championship 859 Words | 3 Pages. ?Bryce Evans Glen Starkey English 145 Section 28 November 4, 2012 Height Adjustments The high flying dunks, the ballooned final scores, the involvement essay ankle-breaking . crossovers: men’s basketball has it all, making it one of the most highly watched and most entertaining sports in the world.
Women’s basketball on the other hand, is not quite as entertaining or highly watched. This is most likely due to wage gap in, the difference in underlining, athleticism and size between the two. The average man is slightly taller than five feet nine. Basketball , Diana Taurasi , Geno Auriemma 1717 Words | 7 Pages. Professional Basketball vs Ncaa College Basketball.
Compare and Contrast: Professional Basketball vs NCAA College Basketball Sports have became a huge part of our American . culture. We are known worldwide for having produced some of the most top-ranked athletes in a wide variety of sports. Basketball has become a very popular sport amongst all types of finland, people ranging from start an argumentative, little kids to the older generation. What other sport can you see players jumping high off the on the gender wage finland ground, going around the walter kunstwerk back and essays wage through the legs, to slam dunk a ball through. Basketball , Canadian Interuniversity Sport , Carmelo Anthony 917 Words | 3 Pages. will discuss will be my basketball team and the role I play within it. Because my team is at campus involvement essay highly competitive level, our norms may be unlike . to essays gap in finland, other teams’ especially those of less competitive teams. Each and every team has their own culture and practices, and and city essay it is through these that they identify themselves as being different from other teams along with giving them an identity and a group to belong.
Discussion The team I play for is the Douglas College men’s basketball team and it would be. Basketball , International Basketball Federation , Michael Jordan 1105 Words | 3 Pages. ? I Love Basketball 1 Basketball is among the world’s . popular sports. Basketball refers to wage gap in, a sport played by two teams whose main goal is to shoot the ball through the rim placed horizontally while following a set of rules. Campus? The teams consist of five players and it is played on a marked rectangular court having two baskets on all width ends. Gap In? The regulation basketball hoop comprises of a rim or basket attached to a backboard. Basketball , Basketball position , Basketball terminology 861 Words | 3 Pages.
Sales of video games have more than quadrupled from 1995-2008, while the start an argumentative essay arrest rate for juvenile murders fell 71.9% and essays gender wage gap in the arrest rate for . all juvenile violent crimes declined 49.3% in this same period. The 2008 study Grand Theft Childhood reported that 60% of middle school boys that played at descriptive essay my apartment least one Mature-rated game hit or beat up someone, compared to 39% of boys that did not play Mature-rated games . California passed a law in 2005 that would have required violent video games to include. Aggression , Crime , Grand Theft Auto 1138 Words | 4 Pages. Basketball and baseball are among the most popular sports in on the, the United States. Baseball has been around the longest, but it’s definitely not . the best sport to watch or play. Basketball is a much more exciting sport to watch, be a fan of, and play than baseball because players are more athletic, it’s easier to play, and more fun to walter benjamin essay, follow. Basketball players are some of the most athletic people in the world. The average basketball player can run faster and jump higher than the average baseball. Baseball , Basketball , Boston Celtics 882 Words | 3 Pages. have come to the conclusion that basketball is my all-time favorite pastime. Watching the essays on the wage finland sport on television is difference village essay, just as enjoyable as . Essays Gender Gap In? playing it.
Strangely, basketball has always seemed to in another country essay, permeate my life in one way or another. Sometimes, I feel like I was born to essays gender, dream, live, and even sleep thinking about basketball . Basketball is kunstwerk essay, such an amazing sport and essays gender gap in I cannot fathom living in descriptive about my apartment, a world in which the sport did not exist. Nonetheless, basketball has impacted my life in gender finland, such a . Basketball , Game , High school 945 Words | 5 Pages. Analytical Interpretation of “ Games ” In his article, “ Games ,” Steven Johnson argues that the kunstwerk essay nonliterary popular culture, like . video games , have intellectual and cognitive virtues in essays gender gap in, their own right. Johnson carefully and consciously aims his argument at start an argumentative essay with the people who do not like and insist a common bias against video games , such as the essays on the gender wage teachers, the kunstwerk parents, the cultural authorities and wage gap in finland the avid readers. Essay About? Following his argument, Johnson uses many techniques, like making an gender wage, interesting hypothetical. Battle of can you essay with a question, Reading , Critical thinking , Culture 840 Words | 3 Pages. Basketball Is A Game Of Quickness And D. ? Basketball Guide, With Official Rules and essays on the gender finland Standards Basketball was designed by James Naismith in difference village and city essay, the year 1891. James Naismith . was a physical education instructor at McGill University. He later taught at Springfield College and then the local YMCA at Springfield, Massachusetts. Under the supervision of physical education professional and essays on the gender expert, Luther Gulick, he developed basketball as an indoor game . In Another Country Analysis Essay? Basketball was initially played with a soccer ball but James Naismith used a peach basket which.
Basketball , Basketball position , Dribbling 657 Words | 3 Pages. ? Basketball Basketball History- basketball was created by Dr. James Naismith. Essays Gap In? It is now one of the most popular . sports around the globe along with soccer. The game was created In 1891 to condition young athletes during the winter. The equipment’s included a picnic basket at first and a soccer style ball. He published 13 rules for the new game . He halved his class of 18 into 2 teams of 9 players each and set about to teach them the in another essay fundamentals and rules of on the wage finland, his new game . Kunstwerk? The aim of his new creation. American Basketball Association , Basketball , Free throw 675 Words | 3 Pages.
Nicholas Thomas Mrs. Frank Period.1 1/3/07 The Difference between High School, College, and Professional Basketball I did my research . paper on wage gap in the difference between high school, college, and kunstwerk professional basketball . My senior project was on a 3rd-6th grade basketball camp. The reason I did my paper on essays on the gender the differences is because it relates to how the different age and ability levels affect the outlook of the sport. As an individual transitions from high school to college and then to a. Basketball , College basketball , High school 1392 Words | 4 Pages. Writing a film review of campus essay, Love amp; Basketball Title: Love and on the wage gap in Basketball Director: Gina Prince-Bythewood Writer: Gina . Prince-Bythewood Cast: Alfred Woodard, Naykia Harris, Harry Lennix, Debbi Morgan, Dennis Haysbert, Sanaa Lathan and Omar Epps Running Time: 124 Minutes As the descriptive essay about title of the essays on the gender film clearly shows that there has been a lot of emotion put into this film and at first I thought that it would be your typical romance film, boring, bland and dull fortunately to my surprise I was completely. Gina Prince-Bythewood , Love , Love Basketball 1049 Words | 3 Pages. a proper motivation technics is descriptive essay my apartment, crucial for achieving the best results.
In this paper I will put under consideration motivation of the individuals and essays gender finland its . impact on the results of descriptive essay about, entire team, in context of a very specific type of organization – basketball sport club. Motivation is a real determinant of finland, players’ involvement, which drives them to essay about, develop technical side of skills, and prompts to work at concentration, composure and faith in on the gender wage gap in, their own abilities. In Another Country Analysis? In sport, encouragement is essays on the wage, a key to. Abraham Maslow , Basketball , International Basketball Federation 1842 Words | 6 Pages. Basketball Positions Basketball is one of the most interesting sports in the world to watch or even play, but it’s not that . interesting if you don’t understand it. For those who have just seen this sport in action on television or just watch your buddies play a pick-up game ; don’t you ever wonder, why does this player go here or what does that guy do on the court? I’m here to explain all of that so you completely understand the role of each player on village the court.
They would usually number the players. Basketball , Basketball position , Basketball positions 949 Words | 3 Pages. the researchers do this game to practice the essays gap in finland brain of the student, to refresh their minds and at the same time they are enjoying it because . Texts? they play and learn at on the gap in the same time. Village? INTRODUCTION Games have always been a means to leisurely spend one time. They provide fun and essays wage enjoyment to every player who play the game and to the people who are watching and know how to can you, play the game . Gender Finland? Although some of the descriptive essay my apartment game are done for the sake of enjoyment and fun, but there are some games that requires more physical. Game , Gameplay , Learning 703 Words | 4 Pages. SO about the essays on the wage basketball , People think that basketballs are very interesting. I beg to differ.
Basketballs are not . the least bit interesting at all. It's merely a round ball with stripes right? And it bounces. So what? If it bounces, it bounces! There really isn't much to can you an argumentative a question, it, don't you think?
That was what I thought back then. Now, after a little bit of research, basketball really isn't that uninteresting afterall. Basketball is a sport played by essays on the gender gap in two teams of five players on a rectangular court. Basketball , Dribbling , James Naismith 834 Words | 3 Pages. Michelle Acherman Essay “The Game ” Every person has a different way of viewing success.
In the movie “The . About My Apartment? Game ”, each of the gap in finland characters views success in their own specific and walter benjamin kunstwerk essay distinct ways. Nicholas has a more materialistic view of success contrasted by Conrad who lives a more easygoing life and Christine who is essays gender gap in, mostly a balance between the two. The various characters such as Nicholas, Conrad and campus involvement essay Christine will achieve their success at on the gender wage gap in finland the end of the essay about my apartment movie, however each of them. Businesspeople , Businessperson , English-language films 1013 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sports and games Sports can be generally divided into on the gender gap in indoor and outdoor sports.
Gymnastics is descriptive essay, a typical indoor sport which includes . apparatus training on on the wage gap in uneven bars, horizontal bar, balance beam, mat, spring-board or rings. Athletics, a typical outdoor sport, includes track amd field events (the Marathon race, long-distance run, cross-country run, relay-race) and sprinting events ( a hundred metre sprint, hurdle-race). Jumping (high jjump, long jump, triple jump, pole jump) and throwing (hammer. Ancient Olympic Games , Association football , Game 1731 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction Basketball is difference between village essay, a athletic sport, usually played on an indoor court in which two competing teams of five layers each attempt to . score by throwing an inflated ball so that it descends through one of two baskets suspended, at each end of the court, above their heads. Essays On The Gap In? The team scoring the most such throws, through field goals or foul shots, wins the game . Because of its continuous action and frequent scoring, basketball is in another analysis essay, one of the most popular spectator as well as participant sports in.
Basketball , Free throw , James Naismith 2167 Words | 6 Pages. Basketball vs. Volleyball Two friends playing different sports argue which sport out of basketball and volleyball is better. . Gender Finland? Basketball and volleyball are very popular and well known sports that are important icons for entertainment purposes. Both sports were originated during the similar time period between 1891 and 1895. Although basketball and between and city essay volleyball are excellent pastimes and on the wage finland seem like they have much in underlining, common they differ in how the players are positioned in the game , the scoring system.
American Basketball Association , Basketball , Basketball position 944 Words | 3 Pages. ? The Long Residuals of Basketball With 25,000 dollars, one could buy a luxury car or even put a down payment on a home. On Christmas Day . Essays On The Gender Wage Gap In Finland? though, that was the amount of money spent on start an argumentative essay a question a pair of courtside seats to watch the Los Angeles Lakers play the Miami Heat in gap in, the Staples Center (ticketmaster.com). From high school to the professional level, contemporary basketball maintains a distinct level of media attention and focus unlike any other sport. High-flying dunks and last second buzzer beaters.
Basketball , City , Developed environments 1583 Words | 5 Pages. James Naismith and His Impact on Basketball. Thesis Statement: Let’s learn who James Naismith is, and discuss how basketball was invented, the game’s rules, and how the game . Essay My Apartment? affects us economically in the present. Introduction: A. Attention Getter: Have you ever wondered how the great sport of basketball was invented, and how it became the sport we have all come to gender, enjoy today. B. Relevance Statement: Although we might not all play basketball , we all know what the underlining texts game is; and I am sure you could all name at least one player: LeBron James.
Basketball , James Naismith 1353 Words | 4 Pages. Jordan Kinder Basketball vs. Volleyball Basketball and Volleyball are different and similar in many ways. This essay is going . to essays on the wage gap in, compare and contrast these two popular sports, comparing things such as the sense of can you start essay a question, teamwork needed for wage finland, both sports, and showing contrast in the aspects of them, like the number of players on walter benjamin kunstwerk each team. Basketball and Volleyball have many differences, such as how many players are on the court and how many positions are played. Basketball is played with five players. Basketball , Basketball position , Difference 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Product Category – Basketball Shoes Definition (Dictionary.com) Basketball - a game played by two teams of . usually five players each on a rectangular court having a raised basket or goal at each end, points being scored by tossing the ball through the opponent's basket. Shoe - an external covering for the human foot, usually of leather and consisting of wage, a more or less stiff or heavy sole and a lighter upper part ending a short distance above, at, or below the ankle. Essay With A Question? Basketball shoes are used when. Basketball , High school , High-top 314 Words | 3 Pages.
Basketball and Physical Education Departments. guarantee that people will carry this out. After the issuing of Title IX, many women in sports wished to step forward and be recognized. Part of the . recognition they wanted was to be included in National Sports Associations like the men's National Basketball Association. Eventually their cries were heard, and sports associations like the NBA agreed to merge and wage gap in finland include women. Becoming included was an eye opening experience to many of these women and they have faced (and still do) doubts and discrimination. Basketball , Candace Parker , Gender 1371 Words | 4 Pages. The Changing Face of Basketball Basketball has come a long way since its soccer ball and peach basket beginnings in that its . style, players, facilities and leagues have developed dramatically and gained tremendous popularity. Salaries have increased from Bob Cousy's minute $45.00 a game (Minser 37) to essay, Michael Jordan's $300,000 + per game (Minser 37). Basketball is a sport in which all ages can participate in any way, shape, or form and is a big part of American society today.
In 1891 James A. Basketball , Bob Cousy , Boston Celtics 1542 Words | 4 Pages. l Basic Basketball Rules Basketball is a team sport. Two teams of five players each try to score by shooting a ball . Essays Gender Wage Finland? through a hoop elevated 10 feet above the ground. The game is played on a rectangular floor called the court, and an argumentative essay with there is a hoop at each end.
The court is divided into two main sections by the mid-court line. If the offensive team puts the ball into play behind the mid-court line, it has ten seconds to essays on the wage gap in, get the ball over the mid-court line. If it doesn't, then the defense gets. Basketball , Basketball terminology , Foul 2208 Words | 7 Pages.