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Essays on takashi murakami

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b2b sales on on takashi, resume A B2B Marketing leader with a track record of smith essay achieving industry leading results in the highly competitive Information. Over $135,000 per month in revenue generated through promotional and sales development programs Over 12 years experience in business development and marketing both on the client and agency side Achieved 25 to essays on takashi murakami, 1 revenue to gross margin return on investment using innovative and simple b2b marketing framework Known within Cisco Canada as a marketing innovator and industry leader Integrated customer affinity and sales development program ranked excellent by customers, prospects and sales reps. years sales have grown from $24M to $40M. It has been the recipient of customer service, practice excellence and. innovation awards. Demographic Transition Essay. This company provides professional and managed services in on takashi murakami the areas of unified communications, information security, data networking and information/knowledge management. African American Literature Paper. Key member of essays leadership team that doubled revenue over two year period Implemented an innovative B2B marketing framework that achieved a 25:1 return on investment Generated $3M plus in stanford short bookings and $4M in pipeline in less then two years from implementation Applied unique 4 R's of on takashi murakami marketing to african american literature paper, generate revenue and build company brand based on reputation and references Led joint promotional ventures with Cisco and essays Microsoft - Integrated social media/web 2.0 into traditional marketing tactics Implemented various integrated marketing promotions packages consisting of radio advertising, telemarketing, social media and campus involvement essay special events. Marketing and Inside Sales Manager 05, 2003. Started and led inside sales team that generated $2.7M in net new revenue over on takashi murakami, 18 month period Developed marcom package and initiated first ever special events and demand generation campaigns for demographic transition essay the company Created formal reference program and process resulting in high profile case studies being published and promoted on American Computer Experience - Atlanta Georgia. throughout the United States. This company grew to over 500 full and part time staff but was forced to file for bankruptcy. during last recessionary period.

Vice President, Marketing eCommerce 04, 2000. Increased online registrations from 15% to 40% of gross sales through re-design of eCommerce site Led development team in the enhancement of extranet to allow real time access to critical camp information. Reduced cost and complexity by on takashi, moving paper documentation and information online Led development team in the architecture, design and implementation of ACE virtual camp, an elearning and collaborative system for transition essay camp participants Participated in Agency of Record selection process with CMO and Director of Marketing, Camps Established workflow process for the ongoing content management of web site portfolio - Conducted market and competitive research. Vision Corporation - Scottsdale Arizona. 3800 surgeons performing laser eye surgeries from essays on takashi 80 centers throughout North America. Director of Marketing, Technology 09, 1999. Contributed to the development of business model, marketing plan and short essay budget Participated in fundraising and pre-IPO related activities Led team of web/graphic designers, developers and marketing managers Co-led cross functional teams for essays client and product development projects Launched with VP of Technologies a vertical market portal prototype targetted to eye care professionals and consumers Maintained and managed web site portfolio including an short prompts extranet that serviced 15,000 eye care professionals and a national retail chain of eye care practices Created new corporate identity and branding strategy for Led marketing team in the architecture, design and implementation of an interactive web site for parent company TLC Laser Eye Centers. Agensky and Company - Toronto Ontario. Generated $300,000 in net new accounts sales in essays finance, Internet and corporate training markets Primary account lead for design and marketing communications projects including: Corporate Identity and Branding; Web site design; Direct Marketing; Advertising campaigns and Collateral. employs over 32,000 people.

Increased employee sales by 62% through innovative marketing program Provided Sales Force and Account Teams with marketing communications support Product demonstrations to: analysts, partners, media, customers and consumers Marketing collateral for the North American market in English, Spanish, Chinese and French languages - Trade and special event coordination Received the Manpower Tiffany award for literature research paper outstanding contribution and received a perfect evaluation score from management. Sports Clubs of Canada - Toronto Ontario. employees. An industry leader in marketing, special events, fitness programs and sales methodologies. Essays. Special Events Professional Coach 01, 1992. Achieved customer retention rate of 68% as compared to industry average of paper 50% by providing outstanding customer service and on takashi murakami one to one marketing practices Developed customer retention program platform for 2,000 customers Introduced innovative method of segmenting customer base resulting in a better recreational experience for customer while optimizing facility use Managed and campus involvement essay motivated staff of seven event planners, coaches and assistant coaches Developed and implemented a company wide (across 7 facilities) integrated marketing strategy for company to differentiate events, services and create competitive advantage Developed and implemented a company wide multi-event platform and negotiated highest sponsorship deal in the history of the company with Molson Breweries. No college or university degree but a world of experience working in small to midsized organizations primarily Avid reader and essays on takashi murakami learner with extensive investment in time and african money in staying current.

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resume qa mercury az * Indicates required field. TestAmerica's Experts are ready to on takashi, assist you. Client Relations Manager, TestAmerica. Taryn McKnight is a senior air specialist with TestAmerica. With over texts in essays, 10 years of environmental experience specializing in the air market, Mrs. McKnight is responsible for providing technical guidance and support to clients, agencies and industry personnel across the country. With her years of industry and project management experience, Mrs. McKnight is well versed in developing an analytical approach, as well as a quality program that ensures the essays on takashi, necessary data quality objectives are being met. With a special focus on understanding federal and regional guidance related to Vapor Intrusion, Mrs. McKnight provides strategic support in the development of sampling and analysis plans.

Corporate Technical Director, TestAmerica. - Mr. Stearns has over 25 years of experience in the environmental laboratory industry including; laboratory operations, laboratory management, analytical method development, Quality Assurance, and development of specialized laboratory analyses. As one of Test America’s Corporate Technical Directors, Mr. Stearns is responsible for the development, validation and implementation of transition new and modified analytical methodologies; the murakami, review of routine and non-routine analytical data for validation purposes; and for the creation of technical documents and analytical polices that are used across the Test America network.

Mr. Stearns has extensive experience with organic sample analysis and reporting using methodologies found in USEPA SW-846, CLP SOM01.2, SDWA and the TO Compendium of Air Toxic methods encompassing the analysis of water, soil, sediment, and tissue samples for a wide variety of chemical contaminates including pesticide, PCBs, volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Mr. Stearns received a Bachelor of Science Degree in how to a sonne Environmental Science from Johnson State College, Johnson Vermont in essays on takashi 1983. Manager of Projects, TestAmerica.

Erin Arasate, Manager of how to a sonne Projects for TestAmerica, has more than 10 years’ experience in the environmental laboratory industry. Her well rounded experience with TestAmerica includes positions in project management, information technology, customer service and analytical chemistry. In her current position, Ms. Arasate is responsible for the successful coordination and completion of initiatives and projects within TestAmerica’s Customer Service Organization, as well as training for customer service staff throughout the TestAmerica network. Ms. Arasate earned a Bachelor of Arts in Biology and a Bachelor of Science in Environmental Studies with concentrations in Marine/Freshwater Ecology and Environmental Science from Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania. Technical Services Director, TestAmerica Laboratories, Inc. Raymond Risden has over 24 years of on takashi experience in the environmental testing industry, and currently holds the role of Technical Director at Test America at the Canton, Ohio laboratory. He has held positions in laboratory management, and has extensive experience with organic methods and texts analysis. Essays On Takashi Murakami! Over the past several years he has developed and adapted laboratory methodology in transition essay the analysis and processing of unique and uncommon matrices requiring testing for the demolition and remediation of on takashi murakami facilities in multiple industries.

Mr. Risden earned his BS in Biology and minor in Chemistry from Walsh University North Canton, Ohio in 1992. Corporate Director of Technical Services, TestAmerica. Eric Redman has over literature research paper, 30 years of experience in the environmental testing industry, specializing in the application of analytical chemistry to environmental problems. Mr. Redman is the essays murakami, Corporate Director of Technical Services for TestAmerica's network of laboratories in african american literature research the United States. His duties include implementing technical best practices, development and improvement of analytical methods, and assisting customers with analytical challenges. Previously, Mr. Redman served as a Laboratory Director, Sales Director, Marketing Director, and Technical Director for TestAmerica. Mr. Redman's technical expertise combined with a detailed understanding of essays on takashi murakami regulatory compliance and other client requirements has driven TestAmerica's 3-fold expansion of its high-resolution GC/MS and LC/MS services.

From Dioxins to PCB Congeners, Brominated Flame Retardants and other emerging contaminants, Mr. Stanford Short! Redman has championed commercial application of state-of-the-art analytical services across a wide range of markets. He provides support for clients, regulators, and other data users regarding trace level analyses, including Dioxins/Furans, PCB Congeners, Pesticides, Endocrine Disrupting Compounds, and Emerging Contaminants. Mr. Redman has extensive experience in essays on takashi industrial and government programs supporting projects for write a sonne the EPA, ACOE, Navy, and AFCEE. Mr.

Redman received a BS in Chemistry and Physics from California State University and a MS degree in Chemical Physics from the murakami, University of California-Riverside. American Chemical Society. American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Trade Association for Pulp and Paper Industry of America. Mr. Redman has published articles in essay journals and presented papers at scientific conferences, which include: E.W. Redman and T.H.

Morton, Product Determining Steps in Gas Phase Bronsted Acid-Base Reactions. Deprotonation of 1-Methylcyclopentyl Cation by Amine Bases, J. Am. Essays On Takashi! Chem. Soc. 1986, 108, 5701-5708. Texts! T.H. Morton, D.A. Stams and E.W. Redman, Ion-Molecule Complexes in essays on takashi First and Second-Order Reactions. Connecting the Two Kinetic Resume in the Gas Phase, proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics (ASMS), June 1986, 973-974.

E.W. Redman, D.A. Stams and T.H. Morton, Dynamics of Gas-Phase Acid-Base Reactions. Neutral Products from Deprotonation of essay Methylcyclopentyl Cation by Uncharged Bases. in Advances in essays on takashi murakami Mass Spectrometry 1985, Part B, (ed. J.F.J. Stanford Short Essay! Todd), John Wiley Sons, Inc. Publishers, 1986, 1177-1178.

Dr. Kesavalu 'Doss' Bagawandoss, J.D. Laboratory Director, TestAmerica. - Dr. Doss has more than 30 years of environmental laboratory experience as a chemist, program manager, technical director, laboratory director and executive manager. He is on takashi murakami renowned for his laboratory expertise in hydrocarbon chemistry, hydraulic fracturing and the crude by rail transportation sector. Dr.

Doss is a member of numerous technical committees and organizations including the GPA Technical Committee, ASTM subcommittee on Hydraulic Fracturing and several API Rail Standards committees. In Essays! He has also served as chair of the EPA-TNI-NEMC shale gas exploration session for the past 5 years. Dr. Doss received his Ph.D. in Engineering (Environmental Science) from the University of Oklahoma, a M.S. in Chemistry from essays, Wichita State University, a B. Essay! S. in Chemistry from Loyola College, University of Madras, and a J.D. from Southern University Law Center. Essays On Takashi Murakami! He is also a member of the Louisiana State Bar Association. Technical Director, TestAmerica. Mr. Dunn has 36 years of experience in environmental testing. He has served as the Nashville laboratory Technical Director since 1996 and has been in charge of Quality Assurance. Mr.

Dunn's responsibilities include method development, instrumentation evaluation/recommendations/repair, support for paper project management and sales/marketing, process optimization, SOP revision/development, analyst training, data review, and Operational Management of the murakami, Inorganic Chemistry Department. Mr. Dunn also serves as one of the Technical contacts for the TestAmerica Best Practice initiative, which seeks out method and analytical improvements and assists in implementation throughout the company. He is also experienced in forensics, electronics and literature aerospace (metal alloys and composites). Mr. Dunn earned his BS and MS degrees in Chemistry from Middle Tennessee State University. American Chemical Society. Mr. Dunn has published articles in journals and presented papers at scientific conferences, which include:

Spectroscopic Determination of Iron in Metal Processing Solutions Rapid Determination of on takashi Ionic Contaminants by underlining HPLC Determination of Anions in Soldering Fluxes by HPLC Chemical Processing Aluminum After Plastic Media Blasting. Mike McGee, MS, CIH. Laboratory Director, TestAmerica. Mike McGee has 30 years of murakami experience as an Industrial Hygienist and short essay Industrial Hygiene Laboratory Director. His experience includes 5 years as an Industrial Hygienist for a heavy equipment manufacturer and 10 years as an essays murakami Industrial Hygiene Consultant. Mr. McGee has extensive experience in NIOSH and OSHA methodology, designing air and wipe sampling surveys, regulatory compliance and environmental laboratory methodology. Mr. McGee has been a Certified Industrial Hygienist since 1983. He earned a BA in Biology from the essay, University of Iowa and an MS in Public Health from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. American Industrial Hygiene Association.

American Academy of Industrial Hygiene. Iowa-Illinois Section, American Industrial Hygiene Association. Environmental Professionals of Iowa. Iowa Groundwater Association. Certified in Industrial Hygiene. Poirier, David A. and Kenneth L Feder. Health, Safety and Archeology. Westport Connecticut: Bergin Garvey. 2001. Chapter 9, Old Cemeteries, Arsenic, Health Safety.

Konefes, J.L. and M.K. McGee. Old Cemeteries, Arsenic, and essays murakami Health Safety. Cultural Resource Management, Vol. 19, No. 10, 1996. McGee, Michael K., and R. Kent Oestenstad.

The Effect of the short, Growth of Facial Hair on Protection Factors for One Model of Closed-Circuit, Pressure-Demand, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 44(7): 480-484 (1983).

Moore, G.S., E.J. On Takashi! Calabrese and M.K. McGee. Health Effects of in essays Monochloramine in on takashi murakami Drinking Water. J. Environ. Sci. How To Write! Health A15(3) 239-258 (1980).

Senior Account Executive, TestAmerica Laboratories, Inc. John Meade has 25 years of essays experience in the environmental field including sales of environmental chemical laboratory services, client services, project management, laboratory analysis, field sampling, asbestos abatement, industrial hygiene, consulting, and handling hazardous waste. Mr Meade's various positions within TestAmerica and its legacy companies have included Sales Manager, Industrial Hygienist, and Asbestos Supervisor. He has knowledge of all aspects of the environmental laboratory. Essay! He possesses excellent leadership skills and is highly skilled with internal and external customer relations. Mr Meade has been working on International projects for essays the last 7 years. Currently, Mr Meade oversees two large projects in Chile and how to a sonne Iraq. He assisted in the set-up and essays on takashi murakami operations of STL Ecuador. He has developed documents for shipping to and from over 30 countries worldwide and provides clients with key logistical support on a daily basis. Mr. Meade is the Business development Manager for TestAmerica's Central and International Regions.

He received a BA in Anthropology from Buffalo State College in Buffalo, NY, and serves on the Board of campus essay Directors for the Air Waste Management Association Coastal Plains Chapter. Technical Director, TestAmerica. Larry Matko has more than 24 years of experience in the environmental testing industry, and is currently the Technical Director at TestAmerica in Pittsburgh, PA. Mr. Matko's technical knowledge and analytical expertise allowed him to implement the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) methods within TestAmerica. Methods 1313, 1314, 1315, and 1316 are new methods in SW-846 by the U.S. EPA. Mr. Matko earned his BS degree in Chemical Engineering at Pennsylvania State University. Corporate Technical Director.

Dr. Mark Bruce has over essays on takashi, 35 years of environmental analytical chemistry experience in academic and commercial laboratories. He has led method development and modification projects for both organic and inorganic analyses, which include arsenic speciation, methyl mercury, low-level mercury, vapor space organics, leaching and incremental sampling methodology (ISM). Dr. Bruce has been actively involved with the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC) committee for ISM, and he is a recipient of the american literature, ITRC Industry Recognition Award for his contribution. On Takashi! He also has experience developing custom cleanup methods to address sample specific interferences. The American Chemical Society. Dr. Short Prompts! Bruce has published articles in journals and presented at environmental conferences and symposia over the past 24 years, which include: Soil Sampling and Decision Making Using Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) Part 2 – Implement, Assess, and essays Apply, Sep.

2014 ISM Sampling Workshop, California DTSC, Aug. 2014 ISM Case Studies: Using Project Objectives to select Laboratory Processing Options, TCEQ Trade Fair, May 2014 Applying Incremental Sampling Methodology to Sediments, Battelle Sediment Conference, Feb. 2013 Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) Field and Laboratory Implementation, TCEQ Trade Fair, May 2012 Incremental Sampling Methodology - ITRC Status Report, Ohio Brownfields May 2011 Laboratory Processing and Analysis of Incremental Samples, Environmental Monitoring and transition essay Data Quality, Apr. 2010 Mercury Species Analysis by Method 1630, PittCon, Mar. 2010 Methyl Mercury Analysis with Derivatization Purge Trap GC, National Environmental Monitoring Conference, Aug. 2009 Laboratory Support for Multi-Increment Sampling, Business of Brownfields, May. 2009 Avoiding False Negative SVOC Results Caused by Hydrocarbon Interferences with Dilution and Deconvolution, PittCon, Mar. 2008 Mercury Monitoring – Collection Challenges and Analytical Advances, Clearwaters NYWEA Newsletter, Oct. 2007 High Speed Soil Mixing to Improve Sub-Sampling for Environmental Analysis, PittCon, Feb. Essays! 2007 The Commercialization Of Hexavalent Chromium Determination Using Method 6800 With Speciated Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (SIDMS), National Environmental Monitoring Conference, Aug. 2006 In-Lab Soil Homogenization to Improve Sub-Sampling for Metals and underlining in essays Semi-Volatile Organics, Louisville Chemistry Conference, Jun.

2006 Pursuit of Practical Particle Size Reduction and Sub-sampling for the Environmental Testing Laboratory, National Environmental Monitoring Conference, Aug. 2005 Low Level Mercury Monitoring Sample Collection and Analysis, Illinois Water Environment Association, Apr. 2005 Solid Sample Homogenization and Subsampling: Lab Perspective, Louisville Chemistry Conference Jun. Essays! 2004 Turning Dirt Into Dust, Soil Grinding Options, PittCon Mar. 2004 Mercury Falling, Low Level Mercury Analysis, Indiana Water Environment Association, Nov. 2003 Vapor Space Organics, Update for a Venerable Method Designed to Monitor Flammable Gasses Entering the Sewer System, 26th Annual Conference on Analysis of Pollutants in a sonne the Environment, Apr. 2003 Inorganic Arsenic Speciation Modifications for Method 7063, Louisville Chemistry Conference, Jun. 2002 Method 1631 – Mercury Holding Time Study, 25th Annual Conference on Analysis of Pollutants in the Environment, Apr.

2002 Mercury Falling, Water Environment Technology, Nov. 2001 Automated determination of mercury by cold vapor atomic fluorescence with gold amalgamation, American Laboratory, p. 26, Sep. Essays Murakami! 2001 Analytical Method Developments to Support Partioning Interwell Tracer Testing, Waste Testing and Quality assurance Symposium, Aug. 2000 Mercury in Soil Screening by Immunoassay, Waste Testing and Quality assurance Symposium, July 1998 Phenoxyacid Herbicide Screening, PittCon, Mar. 1998 Accidental Chemistry, Waste Testing and Quality assurance Symposium, July 1997 Volatiles Productivity Enhancement with an XSD® Detector, Waste Testing and Quality assurance Symposium, July 1996 Soxhlet Alternatives for the Environmental Lab, Waste Testing and Quality assurance Symposium, July 1995 Laboratory Evaluation of Immunoassay PCB Tests, Waste Testing and how to Quality assurance Symposium, July 1994 Accelerated One Step Extractor/Concentrator, Waste Testing and Quality assurance Symposium, July 1993 Concentration of essays murakami Water Soluble Volatile Organic Compounds from Aqueous Samples by demographic transition essay Azeotropic Microdistillation, Environmental Science Technology, p. 160, Jan. 1992 Supercritical Fluid Extraction of TPHs and Analysis by Infrared Spectroscopy, Waste Testing and Quality assurance Symposium, July 1991 A Method for the Concentration and Analysis of Trace Methanol in Water by Distillation and essays on takashi Gas Chromatography, Waste Testing and Quality assurance Symposium, July 1990. Dr. Richard Burrows.

Corporate Technical Director, TestAmerica. Dr. Burrows is a Corporate Technical Director for TestAmerica’s network of laboratories in the United States. His duties include implementing new technology, improving existing methods, and leading technical groups within TestAmerica. He has over thirty years of experience in analytical chemistry in academic and commercial laboratories. His work has involved bringing new perspectives to african american literature paper, detection limits, calibration, quality assurance and quality control, and method development. Dr.

Burrows has received the ACIL Preston Millar Award and TNI Charlie Carter awards. He received his B.S. in Chemistry and essays murakami PhD in Analytical Chemistry from the University of Bristol, in England. Chair of the Technical Committee of the American Council of Independent Laboratories. On August 14, 2008, Dr. In Essays! Burrows presented on a new procedure designed to determine method detection and quantitation limits at on takashi murakami the 2008 National Environmental Monitoring Conference (NEMC) in Washington, DC.

This procedure, pioneered by Dr. Burrows and further developed under his leadership in association with an EPA sponsored Federal Advisory Committee, is intended to replace the current method detection limit (MDL) procedure found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewaters by ICP-MS. Detection, Quantification and Calibration: Impacts on Data Quality in Environmental Chemistry Webinar. Analysis of flue gas desulfurization wastewaters by Agilent 7700x ICP-MS; Richard Burrows, TestAmerica Laboratories Inc. USA, Steve Wilbur, Agilent Technologies Inc. USA. Turning Data into Information by Richard Burrows 2010.

Dr. Kiki Smith! Michael Berg. Regional Director, EMLab PK, a TestAmerica company. Dr. Berg has 14 years of experience in molecular biology. Dr. Berg's expertise is in molecular diagnostics, in particular, the use of PCR for the detection of on takashi murakami environmental microorganisms. As a Senior Molecular Biologist, he provides consultation to stanford short prompts, clients in issues related to murakami, molecular diagnostics and allergen detection. Dr. Essay! Berg earned his Ph.D. degree in Biology at TU Darmstadt, Germany with Postdoctoral experience in on takashi murakami Plant Pathology. Dr.

Berg has peer-reviewed publications, thesis publications, and various poster presentations, which include: Berg M, Rogers R, and Meinke D (2005). Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are required for transition reproductive development in essays murakami Arabidopsis. Plant J. 44(5):866-78. Joshi BD, Berg M, Rogers J, Fletcher J, Melcher U (2005).Sequence comparisons of plasmids pBJS-O of Spiroplasma citri and pSKU146 of S. kunkelii: implications for plasmid evolution. BMC Genomics. 7;6:175. Berg M, Rogers R, and Meinke D (2004). Functional analysis of essential genes using epitope-tagging.

15th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research. Berlin, Germany Berg M, Muralla R, Rogers R, and Meinke D (2003). Essential genes with unknown functions. 14th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research. Madison, WI. Dr. Ariunaa Jalsrai. Senior Mycologist, EMLab PK, a TestAmerica company. Dr.

Ariunaa Jalsrai has 15 years of experience in mycology and has been working in the environmental testing industry for 7 years. Her expertise is in fungal taxonomy and microbial ecology. As a senior mycologist, she provides consultation to clients in issues related to mycology. Dr. Jalsrai earned her Ph.D. in microbiology at the Moscow State University in essay Russia, followed by essays murakami a postdoctoral tenure at african american paper the University of Wyoming. Ariunaa Jalsrai (2000). Mongolian mined land and on takashi murakami reclamation. International Symposium Land Reclamation, Beijing. p. 530-534.

A. Jalsrai and campus involvement D. Essays Murakami! Bayarlkhagva (1998). Distribution of Deuteromycetes in different soils of Mongolia and campus essay their taxonomy. Biology, 6 (136). p. 37-45. Regional Service Center Manager, TestAmerica. Timothy Knollmeyer has 21 years of experience in the environmental laboratory industry that includes extensive experience in the analyses of soil, air, and murakami water by Gas Chromatography. Working in the Mobile Lab division, Mr. Knollmeyer did extensive testing of stanford essay VOC's, PCB's and TPH in field-deployed laboratories. He has experience in on takashi the analyses of metals by X-ray Fluorescence.

In addition to these common tests, Mr. Knollmeyer has trained significantly in campus involvement Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) instrumentation, and deployed a field laboratory to test for known anthrax contamination. As TestAmerica Operations Director, Mr. Knollmeyer's responsibilities also include the operational management of the analytical laboratory and program management staff of the TestAmerica Westfield facility in Massachusetts, including approximately 30 chemists, scientists, and project managers. He is responsible for essays on takashi murakami the oversight of the Mobile Laboratory group and the issuance of quotations for Mobile Lab jobs.

Currently Mr. Knollmeyer is also the Regional Service Center Manager for TestAmerica’s New York State facilities. Mr. Knollmeyer earned his BS degree in Political Science from the University of Massachusetts. American Chemical Society. Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device (R.A.P.I.D)

DNA sequencing detection for various pathogens. Idaho Technologies.2000/2001. NITON LLC-Certified in radiation safety and monitoring, measurement technology, and machine maintenance of the essay, NITON XRF Spectrum Analyzer 2003. Corporate Technical Director, TestAmerica Laboratories, Inc. Karla Buechler, Corporate Technical Director for TestAmerica, is based in Sacramento, California.

She has more than 30 years of experience in the environmental testing industry. She has held positions in Laboratory Management, Project Management and has many years of hands-on experience with chromatography including Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Ms. Buechler has extensive experience with a wide variety of essays murakami complex regulatory programs such as Department of Defense, ambient and essay source air testing, sediments and essays murakami tissues. In her current role she is a principal technical resource, oversees the technical quality of analytical services provided, and provides technical assistance to how to write a sonne, laboratory technical resources and clients. Ms. Buechler earned her BS in essays on takashi murakami Biochemistry from the University of California at Davis. Vice President of Quality and EHS, TestAmerica.

Raymond Frederici is Vice President of Quality EHS for TestAmerica Laboratories, Inc. Demographic! Mr. Frederici is 34 years tenured with TestAmerica and its legacy companies and is responsible for establishing, implementing, monitoring and enforcing company-wide ethics, quality assurance, and health safety programs. Mr. Frederici drives risk management systems and murakami operational cultures to minimize system failures and promote continuous improvement for the entire company. Mr. Literature! Frederici holds a B.S. in Environmental Biology from Eastern Illinois University and a Masters in Business Administration from Olivet Nazarene University in Kankakee, IL. As a proven leader and organizational change agent, he posesses excellent abillities for policy development and on takashi enforcement, strategic planning and process improvement. How To! He is a strong and decisive decision-maker who takes personal responsibility for ethics, quality, environmental health safety and fostering a company culture of honesty and data integrity. He provides ethics training companywide and implements fraud prevention and detection programs.

Mr. Frederici is active in numerous Professional Affiliations including the Amerian Council of essays on takashi Independent Laboratories Environmental Data Integrity Initiative, the Institute for smith National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation, the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference and the Department of Defense Environmental Data Quality Workgroup. He has more than 20 professional publications and has been involved in the development of environmental laboratory accreditation regulations/standards through involvement in NELAC, the U.S. EPA and State agencies. His EHS responsibilities include companywide compliance with OSHA safety and EPA's hazardous material handling and waste disposal regulations.

As TestAmerica's Ethics Compliance Officer, he fosters a company cultureof honesty and data integrity by murakami providing ethics training across all business functions and how to implements fraud prevention and detection programs. Quality Compliance Director. Mr. Penfold is the Quality Compliance Director for TestAmerica. He has more than 40 years of experience in environmental analysis and radiochemistry. He is responsible for QA oversight at TestAmerica laboratories, monitoring and on takashi murakami communicating DoD requirements, and developing corporate tools for ensuring and improving compliance. The NELAC Institute (TNI) Radiochemistry Expert Committee member. “Causal Effect Management”, DOE Analytical Service Program Workshop, Ashville, NC, September 2013. “The New World of transition essay Optical ICP Analysis”, DOE Analytical Service Program Workshop, Pleasanton, CA, September 2011. Essays! “Incremental Sampling 8330B for Explosive Residues at Two Military Ranges – Analytical Considerations”, E2S2-NDIA Symposium, Denver, CO, June 2010. “LC/MS and the New Energetics Method 8330B”, EPA/DoD National Environmental Monitoring Conference (NEMC), Washington, D.C., August, 2008. “Innovative Analyses and Emerging Contaminants,” AFCEE Technology Transfer Workshop, San Antonio, TX, March 2008. “A Comparison Study for Energetic Residues in Soil by HPLC/MS and HPLC/UV,” co-presentation with Alan Hewitt (USACE ERDC-CRREL),Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Symposium, Washington, D.C., December 2007. “DoD QSM Laboratory Implementation”, Louisville Chemistry Conference, Louisville, KY, June 2007. Involvement! “Novel LC/MS/MS and IC/MS/MS Methods for Definitive Identification of on takashi Perchlorate in Environmental Samples”, presented at short prompts the Pittcon 2004 Meeting, Chicago, IL, February, 2004 “Low-Level Perchlorate Analysis in Water by Improved IC and LC/MS/MS”, presented at the 18th Annual Waste Testing and Quality Assurance Symposium, Arlington, VA, August, 2003. “The New Role for LC/MS in essays Explosives Investigations”, presented at the 17th Annual Waste Testing and Quality Assurance Symposium, Arlington, VA, August, 2001. Technical Director, TestAmerica. Terry Romanko has 25 years of experience in quality, research, development, and production within the radiochemical field.

His background includes work in the environmental, radiochemical, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries, including a focus in Operations/Production, Product Development, Quality Control, and Radiation Safety. Mr. Romanko earned his Bachelor's degree in Chemistry from Rice University in Houston, Texas. Industry Marketing Manager, TestAmerica. Patricia McIsaac has 33 years of experience in environmental testing services. Write A Sonne! Her experience includes project management, quality assurance, account management, as well as product management. Essays! For the past 14 years, she has provided business and how to write a sonne technical leadership for TestAmerica's Dredged Material, Sediment and Tissue Laboratories. Essays On Takashi Murakami! As TestAmerica's Product Manager, she coordinates with TestAmerica's chemists, technical staff and project managers to consistently support and how to write execute TestAmerica's Program Standards. These standards identify systematic laboratory procedures to on takashi murakami, address the variety of complexities and challenges associated with dredged material, sediment and how to write tissue projects, which have a direct impact on murakami, project specific data quality objectives.

TestAmerica's Program Standards provide the technical framework for our laboratories to deliver the highest levels of scientific and service performance in environmental testing industry. TestAmerica's goal is to generate analytical data to meet the project's specific data quality objectives facilitating appropriate management decisions. Write! Ms. McIsaac will assist the client's project team in the development of a comprehensive testing strategy to support all requirements of the on takashi murakami, dredged material, sediment and tissue programs. TestAmerica's Dredged Material, Sediment and Tissue Laboratories are committed to american paper, provide outstanding client service, the on takashi murakami, lowest detection limits, the highest integrity, the fastest turnaround times, and with the best accuracy and african literature paper precision. Ms. McIsaac earned her MS degree at the New Jersey Institute of essays Technology in Newark, NJ and smith her BS degree at Cook College, Rutgers University in essays on takashi New Brunswick, NJ. Society of Environmental Toxicologist and Chemists (SETAC) A REVIEW OF THE APPLICABILITY OF VARIOUS ELUTRIATE TESTS AND REFINEMENTS OF THESE METHODOLOGIES.

Sediments Tissues Analysis Webinar; Patricia McIsaac. President, TestAmerica Air Emissions Corp. a TestAmerica company. Rob Patterson has over 24 years of stanford short prompts experience in source air emissions and ambient air testing, especially with the EPA and Texas Air Control Board methods of essays murakami analysis. Campus Essay! He is experienced in sampling Method 0010, Modified Method 5 Sampling Train; Method 0030, Volatile Organic Sampling Train; and various EPA and Site Specific acid gas and multiple metals sampling trains, including Ontario Hydro and EPA Methods 324 and 30B for Mercury. Mr. Patterson earned his BS degree in Geology and Earth Science-Meteorology from Central Michigan University. Source Evaluation Society. American Management Association. Board Member of on takashi STAC (Stack Testing Accreditation Council)

Certified Visible Emissions Evaluator. Certified Cabot Full-Face Respirator Fit Tester. Dr. William Anderson. Senior Chemical and Analytical Project Consultant, TestAmerica. Dr. Essay! William Anderson has 35 years of experience in essays on takashi murakami the environmental testing industry. Dr.

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THE MILAN APPROACH TO FAMILY THERAPY: A CRITIQUE KATE TUCKER. The essence of life is the progression of such changes as growth, self-duplication, and on takashi murakami, synthesis of complex relationships. (Odum 1983: 87) Life occurs within the context of ecosystems, which include both the essay, living and non-living elements of the environment (Odum 1983: 13). All the elements of an ecosystem influence each other in patterns of interdependencies. An ecosystemic post-modernist, deconstructionist view, presupposes that there is no one culture, no one worldview or reality, and no one #145;correct#146; model of psychology. It is particularly important to essays murakami understand this point in the South African context, where so many cultural and ethnic groups live side by side in an ever-changing ecology of ideas. If a critique is to be meaningful, it should be informed, and should take into account the ecology of the conceptual framework that is being subject to criticism and should be consistent with the assumptions of that framework (Becvar Becvar 1998: 221).

An attempt will be made therefore to enter into the ecology or framework of the american literature, Milan approach to family therapy in on takashi murakami order to write this critique. Demographic. However, consistent with a ecosystemic perspective, it should be born in mind that the underlying propositions of the culture in which one has been socialised have a fundamental influence on one#146;s view of reality, on one#146;s thought processes, perceptions and murakami, intellectual functioning. In other words, in order to write a truly meaningful critical evaluation of the campus involvement essay, Milan approach to family therapy, it is on takashi not possible to stand outside the theory and merely observe (as in the black box metaphor) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 63). The act of engaging in critical evaluation sets up a dialogue with the theory, which impacts on the worldview of the writer. Demographic Essay. The process of interpretation of the theory in order to subject it to critical analysis impacts on the theory #150; the theory as interpreted is not necessarily the theory as intended by the originators of that theory. The way that the essays on takashi murakami, reality of the theory is observed partly determines what is seen and smith, how that reality is understood (Zohar 1991: 28). Honderich (1995:13) says that there is currently a distinct vacuum in interpretative theory#133; critical as well as philosophical, #145;continental#146; as well as #145;analytic#146; #150; across the entire range of western debate. The Milan group contended that there is a tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), which traps therapists and clients into linear ways of thinking.

This writer sees the work of the Milan group as a dialogue or rather #145;multilogue#146; that attempts to break free of the received view of the Western logical-positivist tradition, and traditional depth psychology. This writer sees the systemic approach of the essays on takashi, Milan group as confronting the #145;tyranny of linguistics#146; and the #145;discursive vacuum#146;. The original Milan group (Palazzoli, Boscolo, Cecchin, Prata) has split up and essay, the various members have gone their separate ways (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), splitting up in 1980 (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). However, the essays, epistemology of the transition essay, divergent groups can reasonably be assumed to still be based on the same underlying principles as that of the original group. Bearing this in mind, the essays on takashi murakami, discussion of the epistemology of the Milan group will be based on the broad principles of the campus involvement, original group. There are several important elements of the Milan group#146;s approach that require discussion. The systemic element. The Milan approach to essays family therapy has been called systemic in the tradition of Bateson#146;s circular epistemology. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) For Bateson (1971: 243) systems are units that incorporate feedback mechanisms; and by virtue of feedback, these units (systems) can process information. Such systems can be ecological, social, and individual.

Individuals are contextually located. For Bateson, families are systems comprised of individuals who are also systems (Bateson 1971: 243). Most important for Bateson was the how to a sonne, shift in focus from essays on takashi murakami traditional linear thinking and campus involvement essay, the traditional perception of the individual mind to a way of understanding the mind as part of a circuit. This means that the concept of mind is considered within the context of essays on takashi murakami all relevant completed circuits (Bateson 1971: 244). In this manner Bateson resolves the dichotomy between mind and body, as for demographic essay, him mind, body, action and the objects (or people) which are acted upon are all part of a circuit of mental activity. This means that for Bateson, behaviour that in the traditional paradigms is considered to be pathological or abnormal and intrapsychic, is in the circular paradigm, interpersonal and on takashi, relational (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). The focus in demographic transition Bateson#146;s paradigm has shifted from the inner workings of the individual mind to the consideration of relationships in context (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). Bateson based his ideas on several sources, including the essays on takashi, work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Norbert Wiener, Warren McCulloch, Alfred North Whitehead, and Bertrand Russell, as well as mathematics and engineering (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18 f.) An important concept for Bateson was Russell#146;s paradox, based on his Theory of Logical Types (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18). Essentially Russell#146;s paradox states that most classes are not members of themselves, but some are (Honderich 1995: 785).

Russell#146;s Theory of Logical Types deals with the complexities of american literature relations between the members of classes and the discontinuity that arises between different levels of abstraction, or between a class and the members of that class (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18) (Honderich 1995: 785, 884). Bateson examined the paradoxical situations suggested by Russell#146;s paradox and essays on takashi murakami, the dislocated communication patterns that can exist in such situations. Based on this Bateson and his research group moved towards a position of seeing disorders, such as schizophrenia, in terms of communication patterns within individuals and within families, rather than in terms of biogenic or intrapsychic pathology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 20). Several of these elements are important in the context of the kiki, Milan group. Paradoxes, levels of meaning, the evolutionary nature of systems (even when apparently stuck) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240), patterns of murakami information, feedback and recursiveness are all concepts that draw from Bateson#146;s work. Systems are homeostatic and essay, morphogenic (McKay, in Visser et al 1995: 285 f.); they strive simultaneously for balance and change. Macy (1991) suggests that systems are autonomous. Macy then proceeds to on takashi murakami discuss the autonomy of systems in terms of literature self-regulation (homeostasis and morphogenesis): systems regulate themselves, but are conditioned (changed) by the environment and by input from the environment (Macy 1991: 92).

The Milan group saw the world in terms of patterns of relationships and information, rather than in terms of matter and murakami, energy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). For Macy, matter, energy, and information are utilised dynamically by systems: external causes are actively transformed in interaction with any system (Macy 1991: 92). Because of the dynamics of change within systems, the implication is that systems are not subject solely to texts in essays either internal or external causes. This perspective is consistent with Bateson#146;s view that people#146;s behaviour and thought processes must be seen in essays on takashi terms of the research, total context of the relationship between people, actions, thoughts and external objects or people in relationship. The Milan group saw that families came to therapy with a paradoxical request: families wanted the stability of an unchanged system, but also wanted the problem member of the family to be cured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). However, the Milan group saw the problem as being rooted in the family rather than in the individual. Consistent with a systems theoretical perspective, and consistent with Bateson#146;s circular or recursive patterns, the group believed that it was not possible to change the patterns of murakami behaviour and communication in one part of the system (the identified patient) without affecting the family system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 4.3 . Feedback and equifinality/equipotentiality. Feedback is described as the aspect of recursion involving self-correction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 64). Feedback is what keeps a system functioning the a sonne, way it does. The Milan group took cognisance of the importance of recursiveness 3.1.1 and feedback. It was important that both theory and therapy be responsive to feedback in the therapy situation (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).

Negative feedback is taken into account in the Milan Group#146;s approach to theory and therapy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). The Milan Group#146;s awareness of murakami what happened in the therapeutic situation led them to discard a linear way of thinking and smith essay, suggesting interventions, and to move towards a more circular approach to instigation and intervention (Palazzoli et al 1989: 118). Murakami. This demonstrates that feedback from therapy punctuated their epistemology and that changes in african american epistemology led to changes in clinical practices. This means that the system of the Milan Group itself changed: the ecology of ideas took on a different perspective. This is an murakami, example of feedback on kiki a level of simple cybernetics: the system (the Milan Group) changed in on takashi response to information fed back into it from interaction between the group and the clients. The status quo was not maintained, so the demographic essay, process is on takashi murakami referred to essay prompts as positive feedback (Becvar Becvar 1998: 65). On Takashi Murakami. A second-order cybernetic way of transition essay looking at feedback in this context is that the Milan Group was error-activated: information that differed from their original ideas was fed back into murakami, the system (the Group, in interaction with their clients), and the Group responded to this information in short essay prompts such a way that the on takashi murakami, difference (from their previous concepts) was accepted (Becvar Becvar 1998: 66). Stanford Essay. It is important to note that this feedback still functioned to stabilise or correct the system: the on takashi murakami, Milan Group incorporated new ideas, changed their strategies and thinking into more circular patterns, and continued to function (until such time as the Group did in fact split up) as a family therapeutic group. Write A Sonne. Whether or not the members of the Milan Group analysed the feedback process in essays on takashi this manner is kiki smith not known.

What is important is essays on takashi murakami that they incorporated feedback from therapy into theory and african research, vice versa. According to the principle of equifinality systems function according to murakami characteristic, repetitive patterns of interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Transition. The goal of a system is its own survival (Palazzoli et al 1989: 159): a system, as it is , is its own best explanation of itself (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69) (my italics). On Takashi Murakami. Family members tend to develop habits and ways of communicating and relating to each other, so that regardless of research paper how a situation starts, the tendency is to end in murakami a characteristic way. An example might be a wife#146;s complaint that her husband #145;always#146; shouts at her when she does something he does not approve of, while the husband might react by saying that his wife #145;never#146; considers the african literature paper, implications of her actions, but #145;only ever#146; thinks of the immediate present. Whether the wife buys expensive Christmas presents for the children, or new curtains, with her annual bonus, the end result will be that the husband will shout at her for not thinking of putting some money aside as savings. The wife considers that the purpose of the on takashi, annual bonus is to provide for Christmas or to refurbish the home.

The husband perceives the wife as never thinking of the future: each reacts in a certain, characteristic way, which preserves the kiki essay, system and the communication patterns as they are. Complementary to the principle of equifinality is the essays on takashi murakami, principle of equipotentiality, which states that different endings can be reached from the same initial actions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). To continue with the example: the husband might decide that the new curtains are actually an investment in the family home, and might praise his wife for her forethought and consideration in not spending her bonus on presents that the children will have forgotten about before the end of January. The wife might be so pleasantly surprised that she would start to invest some of her salary every month towards future home improvements. These two complementary principles have a focus in the here-and-now, directing one towards what is happening rather than why something is happening. What is important is the present functioning of the system, rather than the history of how the system came to be or to function in a certain way (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Initially the campus involvement essay, Milan Group based their theory on the concepts of the Palo Alto Group, using the on takashi, telephone system model (a model of interactive circularity) (Palazzoli, Cirillo, Selvini Sorrentino 1989: 159) (Cecchin et al 1994: 14). This model is impersonal and a-historical: all users are equal, irrespective of texts who they are, what their personal characteristics are, and essays murakami, what their historical backgrounds are.

What is important in a telephone system is campus rapid action and essays on takashi murakami, reaction (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). This model functions according to the principles of equifinality and essay, equipotentiality. However, for the Milan Group, the model proved to be inadequate. For this group what mattered was the circular processes and interactions within the family that take place over the years that it takes for a person to become a patient. For the Milan Group, the circularity that mattered is to be found in essays the history, not in the instant (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160) (original italics). Time or history, for a sonne, the Milan Group was vitally important, and they saw time as being linked to process (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). They found that the essays on takashi murakami, telephone system model to be simplistic and reductive (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). For example, according to Palazzoli and colleagues (1989: 160) there are many factors that might cause a husband to become a wife-beater: provocative behaviour by in essays, the wife, education level, adherence to cultural norms, personality, motivations, expectations, and the rules of what the Milan Group calls the family game. This does not mean that they rejected the importance of the here-and-now in their theoretical or clinical work, but believed rather that the here-and-now should be integrated together with history into a multidimensional model (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). For the essays on takashi murakami, Milan Group circularity is a process that entails a completion the various arcs of a circuit over a period of time, but that also takes into account the here-and-now, and incorporates individual, intermediate events. It is important to note at demographic essay, this stage that the position assumed by the Milan Group is thus inconsistent with second order cybernetics, as it does have a historical perspective, in addition to a present oriented focus 6 . Strategic approaches evolved from both general systems theory and communications approaches to psychology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 223).

Strategic therapists build on the assumptions that #145;one cannot not communicate#146; and #145;one cannot not behave#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). Essays On Takashi. These assumptions form an important part of a sonne communication science. In communication science there are many models to on takashi murakami explain the short prompts, process of on takashi murakami communication, from the linear Shannon and demographic essay, Weaver model, through Osgood and Schramm#146;s circular model to Verderber#146;s transactional model (Steinberg 1997:17 ff.). Verderber#146;s transactional model is of relevance in this context, as it demonstrates not only that communication is an ongoing, circular process, verbal and non-verbal, but that it is a process by essays on takashi murakami, which the parties concerned negotiate meanings (Steinberg 1997: 19). According to Steinberg (1997: 19) the kiki, creation of meaning is negotiated between the participants (my italics). In postmodernist, cybernetic terms, this implies that meaning is not present prior to the communication encounter, but that meaning is created out of the encounter, according to the way that the encounter or relationship punctuates the realities of the parties.

Strategic therapists add a further injunction to the two above, namely; #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). In a relationship each member tries to find ways of being in a position to define or control the relationship (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). Steinberg (1997: 84) suggests that this is true even in essays on takashi murakami apparently one-sided power relationships, such as a complementary autocratic-abdicratic relationship: both parties seek to define and control the relationship as one in which their needs are met. The autocrat seeks to control and short prompts, dominate, while the essays on takashi, abdicrat seeks to be dominated, abdicating control to the dominant partner. Each seeks to define the relationship to meet their specific needs. Becvar Becvar (1998: 222) suggest that manipulation is the demographic essay, inevitable consequence of being in a relationship in which each member seeks to essays murakami control or define its nature. Communication patterns, the impossibility of a sonne not communicating/behaving (behaviour being seen as a way of communicating), paradoxical injunctions, and manipulation are important aspects of the strategic approach that Milan Group have incorporated into their theory and practice. The Milan Group found it important to consider the history of their clients; for them it was necessary to essays know and understand the clients#146; backgrounds and influences over time 3.1.2 . This is related to the concern that strategic therapists direct to the conceptual frameworks of their clients. It is also related to Bateson#146;s 3.1.1 concept that body, mind, action, and person/object are all part of a circuit of relationship: the mind and its thoughts do not exist independently of the body or of the people, actions and relationships that form the african literature, system in which an individual functions.

A problem is not a problem unless it is defined as such (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). How a person or family defines a specific behaviour as problematic reflects the way they think, as well as how they relate to each other#146;s worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). However, the clients are not necessarily aware that there is on takashi murakami more than one way of looking at the behaviour that they have defined as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224): they are not necessarily aware that people function in a multiverse rather than a universe. Demographic Essay. Strategic therapists believe it is important to reframe the problem in such a way that it is no longer perceived as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). The Milan Group saw that new meanings needed to be introduced into a family system in order to essays murakami change behaviour and to reframe or re-write the transition essay, perception of a given behaviour so that it was not longer seen as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). Meanings are defined by conceptual frameworks or worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). Essays On Takashi. Therefore the Milan Group needed to be able to underlining understand the essays, worldviews of their clients, and to do this they considered it vitally important to understand the history of their clients (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160, 260, op cit.) 3.1.2 . Underlining. Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication states that meaning is created in murakami a communication encounter (Steinberg 1997: 19, op cit.). The Milan Group did not regard their clients as phenomena #145;out there#146;, but rather as a therapeutic system of family plus therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267). They used the therapeutic encounters to perturb the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267) so as to create new meanings or thought connections that would lead to new patterns of thought and behaviour (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) (i.e. to worldviews that did not admit the previous definition of the how to write, problem). It is crucial to note that the Milan Group recognised that the different family members each reacted in their own different ways to therapeutic inventions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). This acknowledgement lead them, in a recursive way, back to acknowledging the importance of history, which placed them in on takashi an epistemological dilemma: a cybernetic, systemic view stressing the importance of the here-and-now versus the need for history (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260).

This led to their moving towards a multidimensional approach to both therapy and theory, and a determined effort not to become trapped in an ideological reification of systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 261). A significant way of avoiding this ideological or dogmatic trap was suggested by Cecchin and colleagues after the split up of the original Milan Group. This is the viewing of models, hypotheses, and techniques as prejudices rather than unquestionable facts (Cecchin, Lane Ray 1994: 15). In terms of Verderber#146;s transactional model of communications, prejudices or beliefs are located within the kiki, process and the communicating system. This model stresses the importance of essays on takashi values, background, attitudes, and culture in the creation and negotiation of meaning (Steinberg 1995: 19). Stanford. Thus, even though Cecchin and colleagues#146; epistemological position post-dates the original Milan Group, it can be seen to have developed out of the strategic approach that was one of the jumping off points for the original group#146;s theoretical framework. Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) take the epistemological standpoint that there is no one truth and therefore that therapists should be aware there is no one truth to discover. Perceiving a model, hypothesis, or technique as a prejudice or bias, and being aware of multiverses rather than a universe, allows therapists to engage in on takashi true dialogue with clients and other therapists, rather than forcing a bias on to others (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). This does not mean that a prejudice or bias is not useful, but rather that therapists should be self-reflexive and should engage in open scrutiny and examination of the texts in essays, beliefs (Cecchin et al 1994: 15).

Further, Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) stress the essays on takashi, fact that any belief that is worth holding should not only be examined in how to this way, but that it should be contextually relevant. A belief only makes sense in essays on takashi context, and taking it out of how to a sonne context stops dialogue and essays on takashi murakami, can lead to the system (the family plus the therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267 op cit. 3.2 ).) becoming stuck (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). The self-reflexivity that Cecchin and colleagues propose is naturally related to the broad principles of general systems theory. Framing the beliefs of the therapist in campus terms of prejudices that could interrupt the communication process within the system of family plus therapist is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. The linguistic element and indeterminacy. The Milan group focused on essays overcoming the tyranny of linguistics, which by its very nature keeps therapists and clients thinking in campus involvement essay an intrapsychic, linear manner. Murakami. They thus forced a different language on themselves as they sought to understand families in different ways. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) The Milan Group forced (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239 op cit.) themselves to find a new language that was open to difference and to a multiversal point of view.

Underpinning this new language (Becvar Becvar 1998 239 op cit.), which sought to free the therapeutic system from entrenched meanings that led to systems becoming stuck, is an epistemology that derives from a deconstructionist philosophy. In second order cybernetics and in a transactional model of communications, reality is transition essay created or negotiated in the here-and-now 3.2 (Steinberg 1994: 19) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Husserl tried to achieve a theory of the relationship between a communicator#146;s words (written or spoken) and language in terms of differential signs (Honderich 1995: 201). Husserl also tried to systematise the here-and-now as presence: presence as #145;here#146; and presence as #145;now#146; being one and the same (Taylor 1992: 253). Deconstructionist philosopher Derrida coined the essays murakami, term différance in how to write reaction to Husserl#146;s philosophy. For Derrida the present (time) and what is present (spatially) is always becoming: it never #145;is#146;, there is no ultimate point of murakami existence in how to write space-time (Taylor 1992: 253). In other words, and consistent with second order cybernetics and Verderber#146;s model, reality and meaning are always becoming or being created; they do not exist out there waiting to murakami be discovered. Underlining In Essays. Equally, reality and meaning are never #145;real#146; or fixed in the past; the essays, reality of the past is being created within people as they punctuate their present, becoming realities. Also prominent in Derrida#146;s work is his examination of american literature research language and on takashi, how language outwits philosophers (Honderich 1995: 188). To this end he emphasises puns, paradoxes, metaphors, ambiguity, indeterminacy, and the importance of play (Honderich 1995: 188).

The Milan Group also focussed on metaphor and paradox in their work and theory (Becvar Becvar 1998), and their first major publication was Paradox and stanford, Counterparadox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239). Strategic therapists 3.2 also used paradox, metaphor, and play as therapeutic tools (Becvar Becvar 1998: 229 ff.). There is a conceptual link between language, reality, meaning, and indeterminacy. Derrida emphasised indeterminacy in his approach to language and meaning, as well as in his approach to reality (Taylor 1992: 253, op cit.) Indeterminacy is, for Derrida, a concept that is part of the différance : it is the relationship between oppositions that makes oppositions (or dichotomies) both simultaneously possible and impossible (Goosen 1994:101). Essays. Western traditional philosophy and psychology tends to be linear and dichotomous in its approach, characterised by oppositions (male-female, good-bad, right-wrong, people-God etc.) (Goosen 1994: 25). Demographic Transition Essay. Hegel#146;s philosophy was an essays murakami, attempt to create a union of these dichotomies (Goosen 1994: 25) and to heal the fragmentation he perceived in modern life (Goosen 1994: 51). Derrida, however, proposed that modern life is indeterminate: there is no healing union or whole. This was recognised by the Milan Group, who assumed the position that they had to learn to live with doubt, both about theory and praxis (Cecchin et al 1994: 19).

With some similarity to Russell#146;s paradox 3.1.1 , Derrida suggests that the american literature paper, whole cannot exist except by virtue of its difference from the nonwhole (Goosen 1994: 101). Derrida#146;s view of on takashi murakami indeterminacy or the différance suggests that if the whole is possible by virtue of the how to write, existence of something other than itself (non-whole), then it ceases to be a whole, because it depends on something outside itself. But Derrida also says that the essays on takashi murakami, whole must exist only a sonne, because it is essays on takashi murakami different from that which is not whole (Goosen 1994: 101, op cit.). Therefore the différance both makes the demographic, whole possible and at the same time makes it impossible (Goosen 1994: 101). A systemic, cybernetic, post-modernist paradigm acknowledges the multiversal nature of realities as created within people, and that there is no reality that is not valid or meaningful for the person concerned (Maturana, in essays on takashi murakami Becvar Becvar 1998: 82).

In other words, reality is kiki smith indeterminate and non-deterministic. Reality cannot be said to exist as a construct #145;out there#146; that makes rules that determine how people think: rather, people determine their own reality. However, that reality is always changing: the reality of essays on takashi one person changes over time depending on how the environment punctuates that person#146;s view of reality, as well as how that person adjusts to and reacts to that punctuation. Most people tend to think in language rather than in visual terms: people engage in internal dialogues in words rather than pictures. Therefore it can be said that language is one of the factors that shapes the way people perceive reality. People socialised in african american literature research paper a Western culture also tend to on takashi think in terms of dichotomies or oppositions (Goosen 1994: 25, op cit.). Derrida#146;s concept of the différance, while it does not try to resolve these dichotomies, opens the way to different ways of looking at language and behaviour and their impact on behaviour. It is transition important in terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy to look in between the extremes (e.g. right and wrong, problem and solution) and to find a language that admits to the fleeting, becoming nature of reality. Essays On Takashi Murakami. It s this writer#146;s opinion that the campus, Milan Group#146;s concept of freeing people from the murakami, tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) is campus consistent with Derrida#146;s philosophy. However, there is a problem regarding indeterminacy concerning the essays on takashi, definitions of #145;health#146; and #145;dysfunction#146;. These words imply the demographic, pejorative meanings of good and bad, which are dichotomous, and essays, therefore not consistent with a philosophy that attempts to look #145;in between#146; extremes.

What the Milan Group#146;s approach then attempted to achieve was to help clients to reach a point where they could understand that there was more than one reality, and american literature, then to essays help them to re-write the language in which they conducted their own internal dialogues, according to their perception of reality and problems as defined by that reality (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). In other words, they tried to allow the family to look in between the dichotomies of literature research paper right and wrong, problem and essays on takashi murakami, solution, by underlining texts, rephrasing the way in which perceived problems were stated or expressed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). The Group did not just teach the clients this new language, they themselves consistently used it, contextualising problems in essays on takashi murakami terms of social and family relationships (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241, 240). They also placed mental phenomena in essay the greater context of social phenomena #150; moving problems from an intrapsychic locus to a social locus. This is also a use of on takashi language to re-write problems in terms of a different reality. A further tenet of the theory of the Milan Group was to involvement essay use the word #145;game#146;. According to Palazzoli and colleagues (1989: 152) a game consists of an exchange of concrete bits of behaviour among subjects. The Milan Group found that the use of certain systemic terms was confusing, or limiting, being related to the biological origins of general systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). However, by using the metaphor of games and game playing to describe to themselves how systems functioned, they found that the on takashi murakami, metaphors associated with games were better frames of reference for their research (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). Game playing immediately evokes interhuman relations and interaction, which the Milan Group felt systemic terminology failed to do (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). For the african literature research, Milan Group, the metaphors of essays games and game playing were the point of entry into a new vocabulary, which related their theory to familiar, human reactions and interactions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 153).

It is impossible to ignore the problems connected with auto-organization. (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264) (My italics) Multiversal or multi-dimensional thinking and behaviour must, according to the Milan Group, take into account the fact that systems organise themselves (auto-organisation) in order to function optimally (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). Systems are limited as to what they can do by their structure, rather than by their environment (Becvar Becvar 1998: 79). Stanford Essay. For example: plastics can be malleable, rigid, or brittle, and serve various different purposes, according various manufacturing processes. Plastic photochromatic lenses are used in murakami lightweight optometric spectacles. However, the type of plastic used to make cheap, disposable food containers would not be able to serve the same function. The process and treatment (structure) of the basic element (plastic) limits the scope of the end product. So it is with systems: they are limited by their structure. How then can we account for change in systems in interaction with environment?

Systems are organised in certain ways, and within systems, sub-systems are also organised. Organisation is seen as the relationships between the parts of a system (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The structure of a system refers to demographic transition the identity of a system (a ball, a plastic box, a photochromatic lens, a family, a company) as well as to the relationships between the its parts (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The environment of a system includes the system itself #150; the environment is both internal and external. When systems interact, the context is changed or modified, by virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Based on essays on takashi murakami this type of understanding of the functioning of kiki smith systems, the Milan Group found it crucial to pay attention to individuals and their needs and goals, as well to the organisation of the families of on takashi murakami which individuals were members (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). People tend to weigh up the pros and short essay prompts, cons of their actions and how these might affect their families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). Essays Murakami. For example: a husband will discuss a new job, which entails a higher salary and more prestige with his wife, bearing in stanford short mind that the essays on takashi, family would have to relocate to a strange city or country, and how this move might negatively affect their children#146;s education and social lives. Stanford. In this case the organisation of the family would dictate whether or not the children were involved in the discussion, even if they were old enough to reasonably be expected to wish to state an opinion or join in the discussion. Essays On Takashi Murakami. In certain families the decision might be made without recourse to the children, and underlining, this could result in an unhappy teenager ruining away from home, or abusing drugs or alcohol.

Other problems of organisation concern matters such as death. When a parent dies it can be expected that family members will mourn, which is a natural process. Essays On Takashi Murakami. However, the family system would need to re-organise in write a sonne order to essays continue to function optimally. For example: feuds could develop between children, or the father and the children as a united front, and an aunt, as to who should take over the maternal role in the case of the american paper, death of a mother (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). As the Milan Group felt it necessary to pay attention to the important factor of the organisation, and by implication, to the structure of systems, it can be said that their approach in on takashi this regard is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS AND STRATEGIES. The whole process of [Milan Group] therapy is american literature paper carefully orchestrated to be consistent with the model on which it is built. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241) For the on takashi, sake of clarity a brief tabular summary of the Milan Group#146;s approach to kiki the therapy process will be presented before therapeutic interventions and on takashi murakami, strategies are discussed. Figure One shows a traditional therapy setting where an demographic transition essay, observing team is involved, as was probably similar to the setting used by the Milan Group.

Table One: Summary of the Milan Group#146;s approach to the therapy process. Ten months, divided into ten sessions spaced at monthly intervals. Usually telephonic Therapist ties to maintain neutrality in order not to be seen by other family members as being in a coalition with the whoever made the initial call Questions phrased in social terms. Calls between sessions. Neutral stance of therapist maintained In case of emergency calls (e.g. suicide attempts) therapist assumes role of social control agent rather than that of therapist.

Therapist brings in other members of the therapeutic team Supervision Observation. Therapy session #150; five components. Team discusses the family Family interview with other team members observing Team discussion of the family and the session Conclusions of the team presented to essays murakami the family with other team members observing Post-session where team sums up. Mutual agreement by therapist and family Respect for family#146;s decision to terminate Warning of possibly of relapse or doubt. (from Becvar Becvar 1998: 241 ff.) Figure One: Traditional family therapy setting with an african american literature, observing team. 1 = Family therapy room. 2 = One-way mirror. 4 = Therapy team. 5 = Invisible boundary separating the team and the observing team. 6 = Observing team.

(from Cecchin et al 1994: 17) The Milan Group used the word paradox as follows: #133;the specific tactics and maneuvres which are in apparent opposition to the goals of therapy, but are actually designed to essays murakami achieve them (Rohrbaugh, in Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Paradoxes are therefore, in this context, such strategies as: prescribing the underlining texts in essays, symptom, positively appraising the symptom, attaching positive connotations to symptoms, encouraging symptoms, or expressing fears that certain symptoms might disappear to quickly, and so on (Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Families presented with a paradoxical request for both stability and change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Families would come to essays on takashi murakami therapy complaining of a problem in one member, the identified patient, who in their opinion, needed to change, to #145;get better#146;. For the Milan Group, true to the tenets of general systems theory, and Bateson#146;s influence, change in one part of the stanford short essay, system cannot occur without change in the system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 3.1.1 . Therapists would thus place family members into a therapeutic double bind situation by not prescribing change, even though the context of therapy is a context where change is expected to take place (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).

The use of placing families in a therapeutic double bind was seen by Watzlawick and several strategic therapists as being a useful tool to manoeuvring and controlling the therapist-client relationship (Palazzoli et al 1989: 4 f.). The Milan Group found this use of the strategic paradox problematic, as it failed to take into account adequate relational explanations for specific cases (Palazzoli et al 1989: 5). This is related to the epistemological divergence of the Milan Group from the Palo Alto Group, in that the Milan Group regarded the historical process as being of crucial importance 3.1.2. The question that the Milan Group found to be most significant was: Why is this particular member of this particular family exhibiting this particular symptom at essays on takashi, this particular time ? (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6) (My italics). Instead of campus using the strategy of paradox or counterparadox as a means of controlling the therapeutic relationship, the Milan Group used it as an auxiliary technique, subordinate to their principal concern, which was to observe families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6). Palazzoli and colleagues go so far as to essays state that the centre of their focus of interest was families and not therapy (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7).

Further, the involvement essay, Milan Group began to experience the phenomenon that, as time went by, paradoxical interventions were less powerful over time, or produced short-lived results (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9). Essays. Another interesting point is that paradoxes had to be tailored specifically to underlining their explanation of why a specific symptom had developed. From the essays on takashi, basis of these multiple factors, they used paradoxical interventions in order to provide families with explanations as to why certain symptoms had developed in specific members at certain, specific times (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7). Paradoxes were used in specific ways according to the development of the therapeutic process over time, according to the number of sessions 4.1 (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9 ff.) The Milan Group also stressed the fact that paradoxical interventions, irrespective of short essay how specific they might be, and in what positive terms they might be couched, or even how ingenious they were, would not work unless there was a strong need for help from the family concerned (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). In cases where the therapist#146;s prestige (for the family concerned) was weak, or where the family was not strongly motivated to request help, paradoxical interventions could lead to the clients breaking off their relationship with the therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). The process of circular questioning is on takashi murakami a fundamental concept in the Milan model. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning aimed at transforming families#146; ways of thinking from linear, causal chains of thought into reciprocal, interdependent worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Important to the concept of circular questioning is the idea that in any relationship, all parties concerned must co-evolve (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). This is consistent with thinking of underlining in essays Macy, who sees the world in terms of conditionality, or mutual co-arising.

Conditionality, in Macy#146;s view, is essays murakami a dynamic process inherent in the universe whereby everything is interrelated and is mutually affecting (Macy 1991: 40) (My italics). The Milan Group saw that many families presenting for therapy did not function according to the principle of mutual co-arising, or co-evolution, but rather one subsystem, coalition, or family member would be attempting to underlining establish unilateral control over the family unit (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning, thus, was designed to punctuate relationships, re-defining them in such way as to show up reciprocity and promote co-evolution (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Not only did the Milan Group use circular questioning to devise hypotheses (not necessarily true ones) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243) regarding possible connections and differences between relationships in families, or which could lead to further questions, they used this technique to essays on takashi continue to write develop their basic theory 3.2 . Essays Murakami. Circular questioning and hypothesis formation formed a very important component of the feedback process between theory and essay, praxis 3.1.2 , namely, that of on takashi murakami understanding what was going on in a family. At this point it is important to note the cybernetic consistency of the emphasis on #145;what?#146; In cybernetics the crucial emphasis is #145;what?#146; rather than #145;why?#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). It was necessary, in fact essential, for the therapist to be seen as neutral, particularly in kiki smith regard to essays on takashi the process of circular questioning, as this process promotes hypotheses that could lead to further questions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Lateral, non-linear thinking was necessary as well, for the therapist to african literature research be able to follow the openings or responses that revealed themselves from the questions. For the Milan Group neutrality did not mean standing apart, or taking no position regarding any particular family member, but rather being multipositional (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). The therapist had to be aligned to no one and to everyone in the family at the same time, as well as being non-judgemental and non-moral (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243).

Neutrality, and the ability to think openly and non-linearly were therefore closely related, not only to each other, but also to the therapeutic process and to the theory that underpinned it. The Milan Group also believed that neutrality implied support #150; each family member had to on takashi murakami be supported in involvement a neutral or equal way. The theoretical construct underlying this concept was the view of a family as a whole, greater than the sum of essays murakami its parts, rather than being seen as the sum of its independent parts or family members. This is consistent with cybernetic thinking, in that systems are seen as non-summative. Neutrality and underlining texts, support together with the underlying principles of circular questioning allowed the families in on takashi murakami therapy the necessary room and underlining, freedom to explore alternative ways of thinking and behaving (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). The Milan Group put themselves into the position of on takashi not being outsiders (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244) of the family in therapy.

This is underlining epistemologically consistent with the paradigm of family and therapist constituting one system 3.2 . This is also cybernetically consistent, as it avoids the black box, or observer/observed concept. Essays Murakami. As insiders, the therapists should not have been seen as posing a threat by the family. Being inside the system and a sonne, being accepted as non-threatening can be seen as natural outcomes of the Milan Group#146;s dedication to neutrality and support 4.4.1 . However, one must ask the question as to whether or not the therapists were actually perceived in this way by all, or even some family members in all, or even some families. A further question arises as to the degree of integration in the family system. However, cybernetically speaking, these questions do provide answers themselves: no matter how much or how little the system was perturbed by murakami, being punctuated by the presence of the stanford short, therapist, some degree of re-organisation and adaptation must have taken place within the on takashi murakami, family in order to campus essay accommodate that perturbation. Working from the murakami, base of being part of the underlining in essays, family system, the Milan Group used to prescribe rituals that paradoxically appeared not to lead to change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). On Takashi Murakami. Further, the Milan Group worked according to the principle of meta-therapy #150; prescriptions at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). This is consistent with their multipositional approach 4.4.1 , and therefore also consistent with a cybernetic paradigm. Prescription of rituals had to how to be carried out very exactly and carefully (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). It is on takashi important to note at that this stage that prescribing rituals that apparently enforce the status quo in the family system is write a paradoxical action. It is therefore also important to note again the essays, problematic aspects of paradoxical interventions discovered by the Milan Group 4.3 . African Literature Research Paper. Rituals were not intended as a permanent part of family life, but rather framed in terms of experiments (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244).

Consistent with the neutral support that the Group believed was crucial to the therapeutic process, if a ritual failed, or even if the family failed to carry it out, responsibility for failure was framed in terms of the therapist, rather than the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). The main purpose of the prescription of ritual was to point the essays murakami, family game in a different direction to its current course (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). Campus Essay. Further, the Group believed that by prescribing rituals, they could cut through the knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and on takashi, reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). A point of confusion arises at this stage for this writer, in that the Milan Group also stated clearly that they needed to write a sonne understand the history of murakami families 3.1.2 . It is of course possible that being able to open up the family game means of prescribed rituals allowed the Group to penetrated into the history of the family. However, for this writer, this issue raises a certain inconsistency in their approach.

Not only were rituals prescribed to be carried out away from the therapy room, but the whole process of therapy was in fact a ritual prescription in the ordered (ritualistic) way in underlining texts which it was structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242) (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17 ff.) 4.1 . Rituals needed to be tailored to essays on takashi specific circumstances, but included the how to a sonne, following general outlines: secrecy, isolation, family talks or the reading of statements, keeping of notebooks, or parental outings framed as disappearances (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245) (Palazzoli et al 1989). The Milan Group placed great emphasis on the idea that prescriptions functioned at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, 31). They also pointed out that a ritual such as secrecy was in itself paradoxical. Essays On Takashi Murakami. If parents were told to how to write attend a session or sessions without their children, and without telling the children or anybody else what had happened in therapy, the essays on takashi murakami, family was all aware of the following: The directive to secrecy The fact that the kiki, session/s had taken place. Expectations were also aroused, not only in the parents, but also in the children. Parents, even though adhering to the injunction to secrecy, and therefore while not actually saying anything about the session, would convey non-verbal messages to the family, thereby subtly introducing new patterns of communication into murakami, the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31). That the Milan Group recognised these important points as part of the injunction #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; 3.2 and thereafter deliberately continued to use the demographic transition, prescription method demonstrates their awareness of, and openness to, a systemic way of thinking. It is essays on takashi important to note the influence of communication science in the epistemology of the Milan Group 3.2 in this regard. What was crucial to the efficacy of the prescription method was the hierarchical arrangement of communications on a nonverbal level (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31).

That systems are hierarchically arranged (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77, op cit.) (McKay, in Visser et al 1995:284, op cit.) is stanford essay prompts not only essays, a tenet of general systems theory, but also of the structural therapists, who interpret the hierarchy in terms of underlining texts in essays certain specific sub-systems within the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). These sub-systems are as follows: the spouse subsystem, the parental subsystem and the sibling subsystem (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). These subsystems, according to the structural therapists, function according to hierarchical rules (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Communication in essays murakami the form of negotiation of american literature roles within and between the subsystems is a crucial factor (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Thus it can be seen that the Milan Group incorporated an emphasis on the hierarchical communication process into their theory and praxis. Further, by emphasising communication, hierarchy, and negotiation, the paradigm adopted by the Milan Group demonstrates cybernetic consistency. Mental phenomena as social phenomena. The members of the Milan group believed mental phenomena reflect social phenomena and what is called a mental problem is really a problem in social interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) Therapy and essays on takashi murakami, theory were directed rather at patterns and paper, interactions, instead of at the intrapsychic dynamics of individuals (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Problems were thus reframed in social terms, rather than as being rooted within individuals. An example of this is on takashi murakami discussed by Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 57 f.) An adolescent boy was brought to therapy, apparently because of his violent and addictive behaviour.

The discussion between the demographic essay, members of the murakami, team, in the absence of the african american research, family, seemed entirely negative: the team had allowed themselves to become bogged down in the negative trap laid for them by the family (Cecchin et al 1994: 57). When the problem was reframed in a more positive, social light, it was possible to #145;write#146; a story that, instead of condemning the adolescent boy as a violent, anti-social individual, connected the family. Murakami. What the team did was to texts develop the therapeutic #145;myth#146; or story that the adolescent boy was the embodiment of the family#146;s way of on takashi trying to texts keep the memories of his grandfather alive (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). No longer was the essays murakami, boy seen as an individual with an individual problem, but rather, he was seen as an integral part of the family#146;s way of relating to campus essay each other, and to the deceased grandfather (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Part of the prescription in this family#146;s case was for on takashi murakami, the boy to find a way to help his relatives to stop, or at least deal with, their worries about him (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Texts. Framing the prescription in relational terms, specific to the family concerned, is not only consistent with the Milan Group#146;s approach to prescribing 4.5 but also showed consistency with the on takashi, idea of mental phenomena as social phenomena. The problem was reframed in transition social (relational) terms, as was the prescription #150; the boy had to involve himself in a specific way of relating to his mother, aunt, and grandmother (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). If mental phenomena are reframed as social or relational phenomena, then the therapeutic techniques and interventions of the Milan Group should rest on murakami this principle.

This proposition will now be subjected to a brief analysis to test it. Testing the underlining texts, principle of essays on takashi mental phenomena as social phenomena. The Milan Group saw families and therapists as a system 3.2 . Campus Essay. Systems are relational by definition 3.1.1 . Framing problems as being within the family, its structure and its communication patterns, as well as prescribing rituals that changed those communication patterns, is consistent with the concept of essays on takashi mental phenomena as social phenomena, as well as being systemically consistent. Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication 3.2 allows for internal structure and functioning of systems (communicator/s and recipient/s) in the context of the communication encounter, where meaning is created and negotiated. Underlining. Communication is a basic and essential social phenomenon: #145;one cannot not communicate#146; (Steinberg 1997: 17 ff.). On Takashi. Communication, seen in the light of Verderber#146;s model, is essay a systemic or cybernetic concept.

The method of circular questioning devised by the Milan Group can therefore be seen as a way of communicating within the therapeutic system (comprising family and essays, therapist). The recursive nature of how to a sonne circular questioning leads to further questions and on takashi murakami, the formation of hypotheses that not only underlining, function as feedback channels within the therapy situation, but also in on takashi murakami the theoretical perspective 4.4. The context of therapy can be seen as one of social change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240, op cit.). Therapists, as part of the family system, do not hold themselves responsible for change or lack thereof (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Paradoxically, therapy has lead to a change in the Group#146;s own thinking (from linear to short systemic) (Palazzoli et al 1989) and that of their clients (at least in some cases). Generally then, a recursive, relational pattern can be seen in the Milan Group#146;s approach to therapy, which is systemically consistent, and that is socially framed (i.e. framed in terms of relationships rather than individuals). The concept of change is related to the concept of murakami homeostasis or equilibrium.

In terms of social cybernetics, equilibrium is reached when the states of a system are constant (Hanken 1981: 51). The states of a system are referred to as the states related to the primary system, the actors ad the stanford essay prompts, communication system (Hanken 1981: 51). The actors and the primary system are, in the case of therapy, the on takashi, family members together with their total social and environmental context, including their ecology of ideas, as well, naturally, the therapist. The communication system is demographic transition essay self-explanatory: the essays murakami, patterns of communication that the family uses. Stanford Essay. In a homeostatic state the essays on takashi, patterns of communication are fixed and maintain an existing level of functioning for the family. The system can be described as stuck. Therapeutic interventions, such as circular questioning, or the perturbation of the communication patterns of the family that can occur by how to write a sonne, ritual prescription, could be said to unbalance the essays, equilibrium of the system.

The system thus needs to adjust in order to how to a sonne maintain optimal functioning (the goal of systems). This brings about change. This recursive pattern, which was appreciated by the Milan Group, can thus be seen to be consistent with social cybernetic theory. Rituals are social phenomena: in fact Girard (1989) says that rituals underlie significant social phenomena, such as religion. On Takashi Murakami. For example, Girard proposes the scapegoat myth as the origin of religion and smith, culture. Girard #145;s hypothetical event and ritual. It must be noted at this point that Girard places motivation for rituals or re-enactments firmly on an intrapsychic basis, rather than locating his theory in a systemic paradigm. The reason for introducing the discussion of Girard#146;s (linear/causal) version of essays how rituals arose is to present an alternative explanation of the social significance of ritual. Girard#146;s hypothesis and his theory of ritual are variations of the transition essay, many possible ways that suggest a deep conceptual connection between ritual and social interaction. Girard construed a hypothetical event in essays the distant past, and at this time, according to his theory, pre-human history made the transition, transition into human history (Goosen 1994: 3).

Girard#146;s event is based on mimetic desire (Krüger, le Roux, Lubbe Goosen 1994: 104 f.) #150; two hominids both desired some object and started to fight over possession of it. Because the fight was caused by mimetic desire, rather than by the intrinsic value of the object that had triggered it, it became infectious and essays on takashi, more people joined in, caught in a cycle of unconscious mimicry of the desires of essay prompts those already involved. Eventually the fight became a full-scale battle (Goosen 1994: 4). To any society a full-scale battle is a catastrophic or threatening event. In Girard#146;s theory a threat to society is an important trigger of a scapegoating event (Girard 1989: 14, 43). It is at this stage that the scapegoat mechanism comes into focus, as according to Girard, during the course of the battle, all the essays on takashi murakami, combatants suddenly turned on one person, who was killed as a result.

Once this victim was killed, peace was restored (Goosen 1994: 4) (Krüger et al 1994: 105). Interestingly, for Girard, the scapegoat is paradoxical, as the mechanism functions on two levels: the level of human emotions (desire and the conflict that results from it, and the level of resolution of conflict) but also, and campus, simultaneously, by apparently resolving disasters in the physical world. Rituals, according to Girard, originally developed out of re-enactments of the original hypothetical event. The concept of ritual functions as a safety valve #150; it allows people to release the negative energy of mimetic desire, instead of constantly bottling it up behind a screen of proscriptive law (Goosen 1994:10). It is almost as if for Girard, the function of ritual parallels the scapegoat mechanism, under controlled circumstances. Essays On Takashi Murakami. Ritual allows for the crisis, allows for smith, a release of mimetic desire, and then heals society or restores order to society (Goosen 1994: 10).

Rituals are ways that people relate to other people, and if Girard (though controversial and sometimes simplistic in his analysis of complex phenomena, such as religion and human relationships) has a valid point, then rituals are the most fundamental of on takashi social phenomena, and are related directly to mental phenomena. This supports the Milan Group#146;s emphasis on prescription of rituals as a way of reframing mental phenomena as social phenomena. Milan Group originally devised a six-stage model of psychotic (dysfunctional) processes (Palazzoli et al 1989: 164 ff.). More recent work by members of the Group shows a movement towards the short essay prompts, development of on takashi a more open cognitive and therapeutic spirit (Palazzoli et al 1989: 220) and thereby an attitude of flexibility, which is underlining texts in essays less tied to dogma and theorising that the original model. Essays On Takashi. This is an important development, as it could be said that the original six-stage model was possibly too dogmatic. Palazzoli and colleagues themselves express their concern with therapists tending to impose their own prejudices on families #150; in other words, it is possible for therapists to slip into the pitfall of essay trying to make families fit their models. This factor is a possible contributing factor towards the work of murakami Cecchin and how to write, colleagues (Cecchin et al 1994), which deals with the pros and cons of the prejudices of on takashi murakami therapists. The immediate problem with this approach is that by campus essay, developing a model of dysfunction, the Milan Group is, in effect, labelling a state of being as being other than normal. In order to be cybernetically consistent, there should be no definition of on takashi either health or dysfunction, as both are ways of functioning for the system/family concerned.

By labelling a family as dysfunctional, the Milan Group contradicted their philosophy (to be discussed in the next paragraph) of campus involvement breaking the on takashi murakami, tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.)3.3. The Milan Group sought to free themselves and their clients from the tyranny of how to linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) 3.3 . Part of the essays murakami, linguistic trap is that people tend to reify labels. For example: fear and involvement essay, ignorance of schizophrenia, together with the diagnostic label of the disorder itself, leads people into a position where the label becomes the disorder. A very important implication of this is that misinformation, misperceptions, ignorance, and fear of the on takashi, unknown (in respect of the disorder) can also become one of the causal factors in the development and maintenance of disorders or dysfunctional family functioning. The Milan Group tied to break the concept of the label as the disorder by reframing the family problem in a recursive, circular way, rather than leaving families held in a linear mould.

Ultimately, families might begin to question their own underlying beliefs, which process might lead to behavioural changes (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242). If families could perceive problems in a different light, the problem as such ceased to be defined as a problem, or could at least cease to dominate the family#146;s functioning. The concept of reframing dysfunction in such a way that if it could not be perceived as health, it could cease to command the demographic transition essay, family#146;s functioning, was a basic tenet of the murakami, Milan Group#146;s approach. Causality, seen cybernetically, is kiki smith essay a paradox. Essays On Takashi. Systems do what they do best in kiki smith order to function as a result of the murakami, way in which they are structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). American Literature. There is an overlap of function and of definition. For example: a family is defined in a certain way according to the culture in which it exists.

That definition forms a boundary. However, the boundary does not cause the family nor does the family cause the on takashi murakami, boundary (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). The definition and the structure of the family both need each other in order to form a reality that is short essay valid for that family within a certain context. A change of context, such as a second marriage, birth, death or divorce, will involve restructuring of the family, and therefore, and inseparably from that restructuring, redefinition of the essays on takashi murakami, family. Cybernetic systems can be seen in one way as being goal directed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). They function in order to do what they do, which is to kiki essay exist (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). Therefore, health or dysfunction are simply different aspects of functioning that maintain the system. When systems interact, the context is murakami changed or modified, by in essays, virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Therefore change can be seen a process of structural reorganisation as a result of internal pressures in relationship to perturbations or punctuations of environment (context) of the system (both internal and external environment) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78).

In this context health or dysfunction are not caused, not do they cause other aspects of on takashi murakami family behaviour or functioning. Consistent with the above, the Milan Group did not take credit for progress towards health, nor did they encourage families to attribute such movements (particularly major headway towards health/optimal/more meaningful functioning) to the therapeutic process. Rather, the Milan Group saw changes as originating within families, and involvement essay, saw overt efforts to point out that therapeutic interventions and been instrumental in on takashi such changes as disqualify[ing]the family (Tomm, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). In other words, if a family moved towards health/optimal /more meaningful functioning, then it was due to the perturbations with the family system itself. How To Write A Sonne. This implies that health, for the Milan Group, could possibly have been defined as a meaningful and valid way of on takashi murakami functioning according to a certain view of reality, unique to a specific family. Conversely, by the same argument, dysfunction could be seen as functioning that is not valid in terms of a family#146;s worldview. Dysfunction could be seen as values, attitudes, thoughts, or behaviours imposed on families from outside, rather than values, attitudes, thoughts and behaviours generated within the family for the purpose or goal of optimal functioning. Demographic Essay. Therefore, if this argument is teased out to the limit, it could be said that the Milan Group had no specific view of either health or dysfunction, other than that brought to therapy by families as presented as problems by the families themselves. Man is not a passive receiver of stimuli coming from an external world, but in essays a very concrete sense creates his universe. Kiki Smith Essay. (Von Bertalanffy, in Macy 1991: 81). This statement contains one of the central tenets of a cybernetic point of view.

With regard to this proposition, the Milan Group can be assessed as be consistent with a cybernetic perspective. They have a dynamic, relational approach to therapy and theory, and acknowledge, and in essays murakami fact, encourage a multiversal perspective in their clients and in their own thinking. Through the course of the above discussion, several references have been made to the systemic consistency of the Milan Group. These will briefly be summarised for the sake of clarity: Table Two: Summary of points of cybernetic consistency of the Milan Group. Points of cybernetic consistency. Bateson#146;s Influence 3.1.1. Change in one part of the stanford prompts, system affects the whole system Circular epistemology Patterns of information and relationships Importance of context.

Importance of recursiveness and feedback Acknowledgement of negative feedback Original acknowledgement of principles of equifinality and equipotentiality, but later moved away from this model and took history into on takashi, account. Importance of communication patterns in a relational context Reframing Multiversal view points Multidimensional approach to therapy that developed out the their dilemma with cybernetic consistency concerning history. Finding a language/way of saying things that was consistent with a multiversal worldview No one truth or healing whole/union Replace dichotomies with multiversal perspective. Points of cybernetic consistency. Acknowledging problems that might arise as a result of structural/organisational changes within family systems. Recursive method that allows for feedback Principle of mutual co-arising or co-evolving Focus on underlining in essays #145;What? rather than #145;Why?#146; Principle of the non-summative nature of essays systems Room to find alternative ways of thinking and behaving. No black box metaphor #150; therapist and involvement, family as one system Metatherapy Multiple levels of functioning Perturbations of communication patterns in families Negotiation of meanings between subsystems.

Mental phenomena as seated in on takashi murakami relationships rather than intrapsychically. Freedom from labelling #150; #145;the map is not the territory#146; Changes originating within families and not attributed to the therapeutic process. In footnotes to involvement the above table, a few references have been made to essays murakami some dimensions of the Milan Group#146;s approach that are not cybernetically consistent, so these will not be discussed again in detail. Problematic to a cybernetic paradigm are however, the concepts of how to a sonne health and dysfunction (Becvar Becvar 1998 247). According to second order cybernetics, systems function the way they function (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247), and punctuating a difference as being healthy or not healthy is therefore inconsistent in cybernetic terms. Further, the Milan Group focused on breaking out of linguistic traps.

For most people the term dysfunctional conveys the value judgement of #145;bad#146;, and equally, the term healthy implies a value judgement of #145;good#146;. Apart from essays murakami being inconsistent cybernetically, these concepts, looked at in this way, are therefore also inconsistent with the underlining in essays, Group#146;s expressed ideal of breaking out of linguistic traps. There is also a problem with defining or punctuating states of being as either healthy or dysfunctional as far as indeterminacy is concerned. In terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy 3.3 , health and dysfunction are dichotomous opposites. Therefore, to punctuate states of being as being either healthy or dysfunctional is to fail to essays on takashi look for the reality in between these opposites. However, in Derrida#146;s terms, health and dysfunction, as opposites, are brought into being by the existence of that which falls between them #150; the meaning of health is created by campus essay, the meaning of on takashi dysfunction. It could then be said that it is necessary to have a concept of health in order to have a concept of dysfunction, or vice versa, and that the reality of both co-arises out of the creation or negotiation of african american research paper their respective meanings. Looked at essays, in this way, it would be cybernetically consistent to punctuate a difference between health and dysfunction. Regarding the prescription of rituals 4.5 , this writer pointed out an inconsistency, or point of confusion in the discussion, above. Rituals were designed to cut through the campus involvement, knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and on takashi, reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, op cit.).

The Milan Group, were, however, also concerned with the history and background of their clients, which they needed to understand 3.1.2 . The quotation implies that the involvement, Milan Group applied this therapeutic technique according to the principles of equipotentiality and equifinality, but stated the opposite in their theory. Connected to this point is the issue of history 3.1.2 , which is clearly inconsistent with a cybernetic worldview. However, despite the points discussed as being inconsistent with a cybernetic paradigm, the approach of the Milan Group demonstrates a number of cybernetically consistent points 6.1 . Essays Murakami. Furthermore, after engaging with the epistemology and praxis of the essay, Group during this discussion, a sense of pragmatic, practical functionalism emerges. If it is cybernetically consistent to say that systems do best what the do best in essays murakami order to exist, and if the Group#146;s approach works in therapy, then it could be implied that this approach is a paradigm for a functional system. Finally, to have a theory or epistemology at all can be seen as being cybernetically inconsistent, as this implies a rigid framework, and one point of view, rather than a multiversal viewpoint. Underlining Texts In Essays. However, any therapeutic model must encounter this type of paradox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). Barlow, D H; Durand, V M. Murakami. 1995.

Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach . Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Bateson, G. 1971. A Systems Approach. International Journal of Psychiatry. Stanford Short Essay. Volume 9, 242 #150; 244. Becvar, D S; Becvar, R J. Murakami. 1996 . Family Therapy: A systemic integration. American Literature Research Paper. Third Edition . Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Cecchin, G; Lane, G; Ray, W A. 1994.

The Cybernetics of Prejudices in the Practice of Psychotherapy . London: Karnac Books. Combrinck-Graham, L. 1987. Essays Murakami. Invitation to a kiss: Diagnosing ecosystemically. Write A Sonne. Psychotherapy. Essays. Volume 24, Number 35, 504-510. Cottone, R R. A Sonne. 1989. Defining the psychomedical and on takashi, systemic paradigms in marital and underlining in essays, family therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy.

Volume 15, Number 3, 225-235. Davison, G C; Neale, J M. 1998. Abnormal Psychology: Seventh Edition. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Fishman, H C; Rosman B L. (Editors) 1986. Evolving Model for Family Change: A Volume in Honor of Salvador Minuchin. New York: The Guilford Press . Fourie, D P. 1998. Hypnosis in treatment: an ecosystemic approach . Pretoria: University of South Africa. Girard, R. (Translated by on takashi, Yvonne Freccero).

1989. The Scapegoat. Demographic Essay. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Goosen, D P. 1994. Essays On Takashi Murakami. Religious studies. Only study guide for SRB302-J. Study guide 4 for MSR532-4.

Pretoria: University of South Africa. Goosen, D P. 1994. Religious studies. Only study guide for SRB302-J. Study guide 4 for MSR532-4. American Research Paper. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Hanken, A F G. 1981.

Cybernetics and Society: An Analysis of Social Systems. Essays On Takashi. Tunbridge Wells: Abacus Press. Honderich, T. How To. (Editor) 1995. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Janov, A. 1989. Prisoners of Pain . London: Sphere Books Ltd. Keeney, B P. On Takashi Murakami. 1979. Ecosystemic epistemology: An alternative paradigm for diagnosis.

Family Process. Volume 18, 117-129. Krüger, J S. Underlining. 1995. On Takashi. Along Edges. Religion in smith essay South Africa: Bushman, Christian, Buddhist. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Krüger, J S; le Roux, C du P; Lubbe, G J A; Goosen, D P. 1994.

Religious Studies. Essays. Only study guide for SBB200-D. Study guide 2 for MSR522-Y. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Macy, J. 1991. Texts. Mutual causality in on takashi Buddhism and essay, general systems theory: the dharma of natural systems. New York: Albany State University of New York Press. Miller, A. 1987. For Your Own Good: The Roots of Violence in Child-rearing . Essays On Takashi. London: Virago Press Ltd.

Miller, A. Smith Essay. S.. 1991. Gaia Connections: An introduction to Ecology, Ecoethics, and on takashi, Economics. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.: Savage, Maryland. Minuchin, S; Fishman, H C. 1981. Family Therapy Techniques. Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard University Press. Minuchin, S; Lee, W-Y; Simon, GM.

1996. Mastering Family Therapy: Journeys of Growth and Transformation. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Morton, A. 1996. Philosophy in Practice: an introduction to the main questions. Blackwell: Cambridge, Mass. O#146; Callaghan, C A. 1976. A General Systems Theory Approach to the Diagnosis of Emotional, Behavioural, and Learning Disorders of Childhood . Ann Arbor: Xerox University Microfilms. Odum, E P. Demographic Transition. 1971.

Fundamentals of Ecology. Third Edition. W. B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia. Odum, E P. 1983. Basic Ecology. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth. Oosthuizen, G C. 1991. The death of the soul and the crisis in ecology. University of Pretoria: Pretoria.

Palazzoli, M; Cirillo, S; Selvini; Sorrentino, A M. (Kleiber, V Translator) 1989. Family Games: General Model of Psychotic Processes in the Family. Essays Murakami. New York: W W Norton Company. Reber, A S. 1995. The Penguin Dictionary of underlining Psychology . Second Edition . London: Penguin Group. Satir, V; Banmen, J; Gerber, J; Gomori, M. 1991. The Satir Model: Family Therapy and Beyond. Palo Alto: Science and Behaviour Books, Inc. Steinberg, S. 1997. Introduction to Communication: Course Book 1 The Basics. Cape Town: Juta Company.

Sue, D; Sue, D; Sue, S. 1994. Understanding Abnormal Behaviour: Fourth Edition . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Taylor, M C. 1992. Disfiguring: Art, Architecture, Religion. London: The University of Chicago Press Ltd. Visser E; Grundlingh A; Genot, S; McKay, D; Fourie D; Von Krosigk, B. 1995. Psychopathology: Study Guide for PSY311-B. Pretoria: University of essays South Africa. Zohar, D. 1991. Kiki Smith. The Quantum Self.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the on takashi murakami written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to african american literature research enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in essays, elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to underlining in essays the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it.

These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the murakami way through. The report can also help students understand the campus book better by asking them to think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to on takashi murakami read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards.

If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the underlining worksheet and essays murakami, submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to african literature each different book that is on takashi murakami assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of short prompts a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. Essays! All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is demographic transition essay a picture book.

The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of who the essays on takashi murakami main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why.

A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the campus involvement essay most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. Essays Murakami! The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word.

Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the african literature paper introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the essays on takashi murakami book. Kiki! Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the essays on takashi murakami book. Prompts! Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment.

A multi-page report is created by essays murakami the student and may take more than one night to finish. Kiki Essay! Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. On Takashi! Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out campus essay as two page reports and gradually increase in essays murakami, size through middle school and underlining texts in essays, high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students.

The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the on takashi report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to kiki smith essay a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for essays murakami, Different Kinds of Book Reports. A Sonne! There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the murakami book.

Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Texts! Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary.

Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. On Takashi! Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and underlining, what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an essays, important discovery. Make sure to short essay answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article.

What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from essays murakami, beginning to end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to demographic mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Essays On Takashi! Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for kiki smith, changing the report before final submission.

Make edits to the report. Essays! Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for african literature research, things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Essays On Takashi! Don’t forget to kiki smith essay save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Essays Murakami! Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for write a sonne, spots where the text doesn’t make sense.

This can sometimes happen when you add new content to essays murakami a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in underlining in essays, the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to on takashi print out stanford essay prompts when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to on takashi murakami be a lot of work for texts in essays, the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on on takashi murakami the effort required in campus involvement essay, understanding submitted reports.

Pick out a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Essays On Takashi! Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low.

Teachers also have to smith essay spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Essays On Takashi! Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due.

Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an kiki smith essay, outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for murakami, examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in short essay prompts, about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports.

Nearly all reports require students to essays talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and how to a sonne, teachers can find a lot of on takashi murakami templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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Why spend. These homework folder covers and super cute and kiki, easy to edit! My school always purchases homework folders with clear sleeves on the front and essays on takashi murakami, I wanted a way to jazz them up a little. You could also purchase cheap paper folders, glue the covers to the front and laminate to transition essay, make it durable for the whole year. I included 15 slides with several different MelonHeadz kidlettes clip arts to choose from!

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Kindergarten Homework Folder Helper. Homework Folder Helper Cover Sheet includes: - Name line to personalize each folder - Vivid Colors - Left hand and Right hand to show direction - Alphabet in on takashi Uppercase and Lowercase ( Zaner- Bloser ) - Alphabet includes vivid color pictures - 8 common shapes with color pictures - Numbers ( 0-30 ) *Preview File Shows a Black and White Version on this item. Suggestions: Print each Homework Folder Helper Cover Sheet using low ink setting on involvement printer. Personalize each one, glue it to a plain. Labels for Homework Folders / Take Home Folders. Stick these labels in your students' take home / homework folders so there is no confusion on which papers should be returned to school and which papers should be kept at home!

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Amazing what a little folder can do! **Please note this product IS NOW EDITABLE!** *ONCE PURCHASED, YOU WILL HAVE ALL THE MATERIALS NEEDED TO CREATE CLASS HOMEWORK FOLDERS FOR LIFE. Why spend money. Need some help with homework folders this year? This pack will help you get organized and stay organized all year! This zip folder contains the following to help you put together your folders from here on out! Just print, cut and go! You will need homework folders, ziploc bags, Avery labels 5160 and murakami, page protectors. Smith Essay. -My Homework Folder Cover -Weekly or Daily communication form for parents -Take home Reading Book bag labels -Take home reading recording sheet/log -Monthly Reading Calendars. Homework Folder Keep at Home Return to essays murakami, School Labels.

These super cute labels were created to help you communicate more easily with parents regarding paperwork that is stanford, sent home through the homework folder. Essays On Takashi Murakami. I designed them to go on the inside of a homework folder to designate which pocket is for papers that stay at underlining texts home, and which pocket is for papers that are to on takashi murakami, be filled out/signed/completed/ etc. and returned to involvement essay, school. They were created to match my Homework Folder Labels. These labels are in English only. On Takashi. For labels with a Spanish translation. Kindergarten Common Core Homework Folder Practice Pages. Updated 7/16/13 This is a set of Kindergarten practice pages aligned to the Common Core State Standards. They can easily be slipped into plastic page protectors and placed inside a homework folder for students to practice essential skills at home all year long.

It includes: -Two parent letters explaining the practice pages -Black and white and color version LETTER WRITING practice page -Black and white and color version NUMBER WRITING practice page -Black and white and color version 2D AND. Homework Folder Editable - Movie Theme. Homework Folder printables help both students and parents by underlining in essays, providing resources at their fingertips to help them navigate activities and essays on takashi, learning, including the Common Core Standards, at home. Teachers can provide families with multiple learning opportunities and transition essay, reinforcement activities at essays on takashi home. Campus. Amazing what a little folder can do! **Please note this product IS NOW EDITABLE!** *ONCE PURCHASED, YOU WILL HAVE ALL THE MATERIALS NEEDED TO CREATE CLASS HOMEWORK FOLDERS FOR LIFE.

Why spend. Make your own Kindergarten Homework Folder with reference sheets that include alphabets (with pictures), numbers (with dots to show quantity), spelling words, sight words, colors, shapes, left hand and right hand. Editable Homework folders. These can also be used as Binder Covers This may NOT be resold with content. This is for a single classroom use. There are 6 different editable templates! :) Thanks for murakami, stopping by Aly. Benchmark Advance Sound Spelling Cards for african american paper, Homework Folders. I created this because Benchmark's version is essays on takashi murakami, larger than 8x12 and african research, the spellings are EXTREMELY small. These charts are MUCH easier to read than Benchmark's.

But all the pictures are the same and the cards are actually labeled! You will see the difference in murakami the PREVIEW. Demographic Essay. This set includes: -a one-page 8x12 chart that contains all the sound-spelling cards. -a one-page 8x12 chart that contains sound spelling cards A-Z which would be good for Kinder. Writing is an essays on takashi important part of the kindergarten curriculum and with extra practice at home we have found that students progress through the short writing stages more quickly. Helping children to write can be a daunting experience for parents. By using the Writing Homework Folder you will be giving the on takashi murakami parents and students the tools and guidance needed for how to, the child to become a successful writer. 50 Blackline masters of the essays Dotted-lined Writing Prompts 50 Blackline masters of the Single-lined. Homework Folder Cover Sheet for Primary Grades.

If you teach preschool, transitional kindergarten (also known as TK or junior kindergarten), or kindergarten then this might be for underlining, you! I created these sheets as a custom request by my dear friends Linda Veik and on takashi murakami, Susan Lopez, both kindergarten teachers in Fontana, CA. Updated 7/21/2016 Special thanks to Yaileen Nieves for stanford essay, reaching out to me on on takashi Instagram and asking if I would translate this resource into Spanish. Absolutely! With teamwork from Yaileen, you will find the alphabet corresponds. Homework Folder Editable - Rock-n-Roll Theme. Homework Folder printables help both students and parents by providing resources at their fingertips to help them navigate activities and learning, including the Common Core Standards, at home. Teachers can provide families with multiple learning opportunities and reinforcement activities at transition essay home. Amazing what a little folder can do! **Please note this product IS NOW EDITABLE!** *ONCE PURCHASED, YOU WILL HAVE ALL THE MATERIALS NEEDED TO CREATE CLASS HOMEWORK FOLDERS FOR LIFE. On Takashi. Why spend. These super cute Homework Folder Labels will help your students stay organized by clearly identifying their Homework Folders!

Simply print, write student's names on campus essay the labels (or have your students write their own names), attach to the folders, laminate the folders if desired, and on takashi murakami, you're ready to go! The labels were created to transition, be used with 2”x4” labels such as Avery #5263 or #8463. Or you could print them out on essays a regular sheet of paper, cut them apart, and tape or glue them to the front of. This file contains everything you will need to start up a Reading Folder for your students' Reading program throughout the campus involvement year. It contains a Reading Log for daily Reading homework, A letter to on takashi, parents explaining weekly Reading homework, 20 Reading Response questions and Reading Response Log, a List of Genres, and a Reading Folder Cover. Students read and log books in the reading log daily. Campus Involvement Essay. Over the essays on takashi weekend they complete a Reading Response answering questions from the Reading Response List.

Kindergarten Homework Folder Cover. I use this as my homework folder front and back cover for involvement essay, kindergarten. It is meant to be used with a two-pocket folder. It is cute and colorful! On the front cover: Capital and lowercase letters with clipart 1-100 Number Chart Coins and on takashi murakami, values I actually prefer to use the front cover with the title aligned to the left and underlining in essays, I affix a label on the right side with the student's name (left-aligned and murakami, centered title covers are included in this file.) On the back cover: Days of in essays, the. Homework Folder Editable - Butterfly Theme. Homework Folder printables help both students and parents by providing resources at their fingertips to help them navigate activities and learning, including the Common Core Standards, at home.

Teachers can provide families with multiple learning opportunities and reinforcement activities at home. Amazing what a little folder can do! **Please note this product IS NOW EDITABLE!** *ONCE PURCHASED, YOU WILL HAVE ALL THE MATERIALS NEEDED TO CREATE CLASS HOMEWORK FOLDERS FOR LIFE. Why spend. Homework Folder for Olders Editable - Space Theme. Homework Folder printables help both students and essays on takashi, parents by providing resources at their fingertips to literature paper, help them navigate activities and learning, including the Common Core Standards, at home. Essays On Takashi. Teachers can provide families with multiple learning opportunities and reinforcement activities at home.

Amazing what a little folder can do! **Please note this product IS NOW EDITABLE!** *ONCE PURCHASED, YOU WILL HAVE ALL THE MATERIALS NEEDED TO CREATE CLASS HOMEWORK FOLDERS FOR LIFE. Essay. Why spend money. Personalize, print, and paste the cover to an envelope or folder. This homework folder cover has a list of k-1 high frequency words, numbers 0-100, and essays, the alphabet guide with arrows for african american literature research paper, proper letter formation. This page can be used as a resource for preschool, kindergarten, and essays on takashi murakami, first graders when completing their homework. This work by Jessica Baird is smith, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Homework Folder Label for First Grade. Keeping a classroom and supplies organized can be very difficult. I try to essays on takashi murakami, label all folders, tubs, activities, etc so that the students and I know the campus involvement essay purpose of essays on takashi, every item used in kiki smith the classroom. I use this on the front cover of students homework folder.

I write their name on the line. They are designed to fit Avery labels 48863. Homework Folder for Olders Editable - Western Theme. Homework Folder printables help both students and parents by on takashi, providing resources at their fingertips to help them navigate activities and learning, including the short prompts Common Core Standards, at home. On Takashi Murakami. Teachers can provide families with multiple learning opportunities and how to a sonne, reinforcement activities at home. Amazing what a little folder can do! **Please note this product IS NOW EDITABLE!** *ONCE PURCHASED, YOU WILL HAVE ALL THE MATERIALS NEEDED TO CREATE CLASS HOMEWORK FOLDERS FOR LIFE. Why spend. Homework Folder for on takashi, Olders Editable - Sports Theme. Homework Folder printables help both students and parents by providing resources at their fingertips to help them navigate activities and learning, including the Common Core Standards, at campus home.

Teachers can provide families with multiple learning opportunities and reinforcement activities at home. Amazing what a little folder can do! **Please note this product IS NOW EDITABLE!** *ONCE PURCHASED, YOU WILL HAVE ALL THE MATERIALS NEEDED TO CREATE CLASS HOMEWORK FOLDERS FOR LIFE. Why spend. This product is on takashi, a tool to underlining, use when setting up your own homework folders. Essays On Takashi. It describes (with pictures) ways that I have done homework in transition my classroom for several years. It includes 3 options for year round homework. Inside you will find: --3 Homework options with detailed instructions and pictures --3 Homework direction printables for parents --5 subject area homework menus - subjects include: math, spelling, phonics, writing, and essays on takashi, family fun ***There are 2 versions of each menu for weekly OR. Homework Folder Cover - B.E.E.

Folder. I created a folder cover for how to write a sonne, the often used B.E.E. Folder (Bring Everything Everyday) theme. There is a cover page and a labels for essays on takashi, inside the folder. I used contact paper to attach to the front and literature paper, inside of the homework folders. laminating would work too.

Enjoy! Homework Folder Labels with Picture. These labels are great for student homework folders. One side of the folder is for things that should be Left at home and on takashi, the other side is for things that should come Right back to school. Kiki. A picture is included for easy use for younger students. Great way to keep students homework folders neat and organized. Homework Folder Editable - Surf Theme.

Homework Folder printables help both students and parents by providing resources at their fingertips to on takashi murakami, help them navigate activities and learning, including the Common Core Standards, at home. Teachers can provide families with multiple learning opportunities and reinforcement activities at home. Amazing what a little folder can do! **Please note this product IS NOW EDITABLE!** *ONCE PURCHASED, YOU WILL HAVE ALL THE MATERIALS NEEDED TO CREATE CLASS HOMEWORK FOLDERS FOR LIFE. Transition. Why spend. Using student folders in the classroom helps tremendously with classroom management and organization.

I use them for homework and weekly folders, but this product gives you various options including editable folder covers! Included are two files, a PDF file that you will write in students' names if you wish. Essays On Takashi Murakami. Also included is the editable file (you must have Powerpoint to edit) that you can edit the student's names if you choose that option of printing. You can also add your name, room. Homework Folder Editable - Western Theme. Homework Folder printables help both students and parents by providing resources at kiki smith essay their fingertips to help them navigate activities and learning, including the essays on takashi murakami Common Core Standards, at home. Teachers can provide families with multiple learning opportunities and reinforcement activities at home. Amazing what a little folder can do! **Please note this product IS NOW EDITABLE!** *ONCE PURCHASED, YOU WILL HAVE ALL THE MATERIALS NEEDED TO CREATE CLASS HOMEWORK FOLDERS FOR LIFE.

Why spend. FISH Folder Labels (for take home or homework folders) Family involvement starts here! I'm putting these on kiki my take-home / homework / behavior folders. There are 3 different label designs, made for Avery shipping labels 5163, 8163, and other equivalent labels (2 in essays x 4 in). Texts In Essays. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ How to essays on takashi murakami, get TPT credit to campus, use on future purchases: Go to My TPT, then My Purchases.

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Many of the demographic documents in this packet are editable so that you can type your own name and students' names on the forms. It includes: Parent letter -describes why speech and essays on takashi, language homework is so important -editable space for you to fill in your preferred contact information and campus involvement, sign/write your name -worded so that it can be used. Homework folders are a great way to help keep kids organized, communicate with families, and provide instructional resources at home. These homework folders are editable so you can personalize them with student names and your contact information. Essays On Takashi Murakami. The folders are not included.

This includes all the printables necessary for fabulously helpful folders. African Research Paper. ***Check out the preview!! Included in this purchase are. Page 1 Product cover Page 2 Credits Page 3 Table of Contents Page. Homework Folder Keep at on takashi murakami Home Return to School Labels wSpanish translation. These super cute labels were created to demographic transition essay, help you communicate more easily with parents regarding paperwork that is sent home through the homework folder. Essays Murakami. I designed them to go on kiki smith essay the inside of a homework folder to designate which pocket is for papers that stay at home, and which pocket is for papers that are to be filled out/signed/completed/ etc. and returned to school. They were created to match my Homework Folder Labels. Essays On Takashi Murakami. These labels have a Spanish translation under the English words.

For. Homework Folder Editable - Space Theme. Homework Folder printables help both students and parents by providing resources at how to write a sonne their fingertips to on takashi murakami, help them navigate activities and learning, including the Common Core Standards, at home. Teachers can provide families with multiple learning opportunities and reinforcement activities at short prompts home. Amazing what a little folder can do! **Please note this product IS NOW EDITABLE!** *ONCE PURCHASED, YOU WILL HAVE ALL THE MATERIALS NEEDED TO CREATE CLASS HOMEWORK FOLDERS FOR LIFE.

Why spend. Name Labels for Homework Folders-Type Names-Comic Sans Font. Name Labels Comic Sans Font (Also available in Schoolhouse font in my product listings as well) ? Labels for homework folders ? 3 page file with 30 name labels. ? Just type in essays on takashi your students' names to create your own labels for students' homework folders. How To A Sonne. ? More labels, multipurpose, available with other graphics among my other product listings below. ? Simply highlight the essays on takashi murakami name Elizabeth's, and how to write, type in the name you need on each label, and hit the return key. ? Names will. Superhero homework folders! This set contains: -10 different superhero homework folder covers -Homework Check-In Chart -4 Holiday Homework Passes Be sure to follow me for essays on takashi, more superhero themed products: Campus Essay. If you download this product please provide feedback. You may also like: Chevron Superhero Group Signs Superhero Dollars Superhero End of the Year Certificates Make sure to read the on takashi murakami Terms of Use to short essay prompts, know how the essays on takashi murakami product can be.

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essays on apathy All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to essays on takashi murakami, make payment online. The bystander effect is a social psychological occurrence that refers to scenarios where individuals do not provide help during emergency cases to the victim in the presence of other people. Conventionally, there is an inverse relationship between the number of bystanders and the probability of help. This implies that the likelihood of american receiving help reduces with an increase in the number of bystanders (Graham 102).

The sheer presence of bystanders serves to reduce the chances of intervention. This is because an increase in bystanders reduces the likelihood of a bystander interpreting the emergency as a problem, which reduces the probability of a bystander assuming responsibility for initiating action to help. Similarly, observers in an emergency case are highly likely to intervene in the absence of other witnesses. In a chain of classical research studies, John Darley and essays on takashi murakami, Bibb Latane revealed that the amount of time a participant takes to initiate action and involvement, seek aid varies in accordance to on takashi murakami, the number of observers present in the room (Hudson and a sonne, Bruckman 175). There are numerous explanations for the bystander effect, although social psychologists have placed emphasis on on takashi, two leading explanations: social influence and diffusion of responsibility. This paper discusses the psychology behind the bystander effects and its impacts on society and involvement, outlines the Darley and Latane’s theory and the experiments relating to the bystander effect.

Darley and Latane’s Theory and on takashi murakami, Experiments about the Bystander Effect. John Darley and Bibb Latane were the first to demonstrate the bystander effects in 1968 after the murder case of Kitty Genovese in 1964 caught their attention. Darley and short prompts, Latane conducted numerous experiments in an attempt to explain the psychology behind the essays murakami, bystander effect. The four dozen experiments conducted within 12 years yielded similar results. The experiments entailed placing a participant either alone or amidst other participants and then staging an african american research emergency scenario (Miles, Klaus and essays, Wolfgang 78). Darley and Latane measured the time it took the participants to respond to the emergency situation, and whether they or not they took intervention measures. The prevalent outcome of all the experiments was the presence of other participants inhibited the participants from helping, usually by a considerable margin.

In one experiment by Darley and Latane, subjects were positioned in three different treatment conditions: alone in the room, with two confederates acting as if to be normal participants, and with other two participants. An emergency situation was staged by filling smoke in the room while participants were filling out questionnaires. When the participants were alone in the room, 75 percent reported the smoke. On the contrary, only 38 percent of participants in the room with two other individuals reported the emergency. In the case of the final group, the smith essay, two confederates noted the smoke but ignored, leading to only 10 percent of the essays on takashi, participants reporting the emergency (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 96). Numerous studies have attempted to explain the bystander effect, a 2008 study by Simon Crowther and write a sonne, Mark Levine reported that increasing the size of bystanders prevented intervention during situations of street violence, especially when the bystanders were strangers and encouraged help in cases where the bystanders were friends (Levine and Crowther 1440).

The study concluded that when bystanders shared group-level psychological associations, the essays, group size can either promote or prevent helping. Short Essay Prompts? There are numerous reasons associated with the essays on takashi, failure of bystanders acting in emergency scenarios; however, social psychologists place emphasis on two primary factors: social influence and diffusion of responsibility. Graham (125) argues that the fundamental principle of social influence asserts that bystanders usually assess the reactions of other individuals during an emergency scenario in order to determine whether intervention is required or not. Since other individuals present in the scene are doing nothing, they all maintain the view that inaction from other people implies that help is kiki not needed. In addition, social influence perspective holds the view that there is the necessity to essays murakami, behave in an appropriate and socially acceptable manner. Therefore, when other witnesses fail to intervene, people usually perceive this as a signal that there is underlining no need for help or that help is inappropriate (Meyers 104). Studies have reported that witnesses are less likely to respond if the scenario is ambiguous. For instance, in the murder case of Genovese Kitty, most of the 38 onlookers thought that the essays murakami, incident was a case involving lover’s quarrel, and essay, did not comprehend that the victim was being killed. Social influence is analogous to the aspect of on takashi murakami conformity, which refers to individuals acting in how to write a sonne, accordance to attitudes, behaviors and beliefs of group norms.

According to the social proof phenomenon, individuals usually assume that the actions undertaken by others correspond to the correct behavior in a particular scenario. Meyers (85) points out that social proof is a common occurrence in ambiguous circumstances where individuals are not capable of determining the appropriate behavior, and is mostly driven by on takashi, the predisposition that surrounding individuals are more informed concerning the situation than the individual. The bystander effect is best explained in terms of the effects of social influence, which involves the tendency of in essays individuals conforming to either mistaken or correct choices, a psychological phenomenon also known as herd behavior (Levine and Crowther 1435). Despite the fact that social proof illustrates a rational motive to take into consideration the knowledge of others, formal analysis reveals that it leads to convergence of people towards a single choice in a manner that decisions made by large groups of people are based on essays murakami, limited information, which is the actual case of the bystander effect. In explaining bystander effect, social proof is viewed in the perspective of conformity, wherein an individual in an emergency situation is likely to be unsure of the appropriate course of how to a sonne action; as a result, they often embark on other individuals for cues regarding the correct behavior. Essays On Takashi? People usually conform because they believe that their understanding of the incident is less accurate than other individuals’ understanding of the same situation; therefore, they consider the actions of others as the most suitable course of action (Levine and Thompson 245). Darley and Latane use the diffusion of responsibility theory to explain the bystander effect, which asserts that the presence of other observers reduces the pressure on individuals to respond to an emergency because of the thought of shared responsibility. Involvement Essay? Fundamentally, a large group of people leads to the perception of reduces the sense of individual responsibility to respond because it is shared by all the bystanders present. On Takashi Murakami? Diffusion of african literature research responsibility theory is used in the explanation of the bystander effect, wherein an essays on takashi murakami increased presence of onlookers leads to reduced probability of a victim receiving help during emergency situations.

For instance, placing oneself in the contest of stanford short essay prompts a large city in a rather busy street and a strange person falls to the ground and start suffering from convulsion and seizure (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 145). It is evident that many observers will turn and look at the person, but no single person opts to on takashi murakami, help or call for medical aid. The primary explanation for this occurrence is because of the presence of many witnesses, which leads to no person feeling the campus essay, pressure of individual responsibility. It is highly likely that other onlookers will think that their peers have already called for essays on takashi, aid, or that their peers are not initiating any action implying that the emergency is not serious after all. Campus? The phenomenon of diffusion of responsibility tends to take place among group sizes above a particular critical size and in situations lacking the explicit assignment of responsibility. It seldom occurs when an individual is essays on takashi murakami alone and usually increases with increases in literature research, group size (Graham 85). Darley and Latane’s theory of diffusion of responsibility is well applicable in outsized groups under antisocial and pro-social conditions. Under pro-social contexts, the willingness of the individual to respond or provide assistance to a person in need is repressed by the occurrence of other spectators. The individual usually holds the belief that other witnesses present will offer assistance; therefore, an individual in an emergency situation does not recognize that he or she has the responsibility to respond. The case of the Murder of Kitty Genovese is a model exemplar of diffusion of responsibility in a pro-social context.

It has been proved that the probability of an murakami individual providing help reduces with the essay, increase in the number of witnesses present. On Takashi Murakami? Further, there is a high probability that diffusion of responsibility is likely to in essays, take place in anonymous situations. Under pro-social circumstances, people are not likely to respond if they do not have some personal relationship with the victim; rather, they hold the perception that someone having a personal relationship with the victim will come to his/her aid. On Takashi? Under antisocial conditions, diffusion of responsibility increases the likelihood of a person engaging in negative behaviors when the individual is the context of a group comprising of similarly motivated people. Negative behavior is motivated by stanford short, the deindividuating impacts, diffusion of feelings regarding personal responsibility for on takashi, outcomes (Hudson and Bruckman 147). The helping behavior of individuals is accurately explained using the aspect of diffusion of responsibility. This is because social psychological research have revealed that individual’s failure to provide assistance to others in emergency situations is not grounded by apathy and smith essay, indifference, but inhibited because of the presence of onlookers. Subsequent experiments by John Darley and on takashi, Bibb Latane pointed out the decision to assist or respond relies on the number of in essays present bystanders. The size of the group had considerable influence on the probability of helping in cases of staged emergencies: 85 percent of participants intervened in the absence of other bystanders, whereas 62 percent responded when with another bystander, and essays on takashi, only 31 percent responded in the presence of four other onlookers.

Other research studies have reported similar results including reports obtained from actual emergency scenarios like calling ambulance. In ambiguous scenarios, the appraisal of the scenario by the individual and corresponding inaction or action relies on the reactions of onlookers present. The interpretation of an emergency situation by other onlookers has a significant influence on a sonne, the individual’s helping behavior and perception of the emergency scenario. One of the most significant aspects that Darlene and Latane did not take into account in murakami, their experiments was the presence of bystanders who lack the capability of helping. However, other studies have affirmed that diffusion of responsibility does not take place in cases where a bystander is perceived as lacking the demographic transition, capability to murakami, help. Diffusion of responsibility is also helpful when viewed from the perspective of group psychology and can be helpful in imposing positive behavior. For instance, when one bystander decides to take responsibility during emergency situations and undertakes an write assistive action, there is the essays on takashi murakami, likelihood that other bystanders will follow suit. Therefore, the presence of other bystanders usually has an effect on the helping behavior of an individual through diffusion of responsibility and social influence (Graham 147). There are other reasons that Darley and Latane do not take into account when explaining the bystander effect. Other reasons why people may not react in emergency situations include the assumption that other onlookers are extremely qualified to essay, provide assistance in emergency conditions such as law enforcement officers and medical doctors; as a result, their assistance would not be required. Individuals are also faced with issues of experience evaluation apprehension and the fear of appearing as a loser among other onlookers.

In addition, people do not like being superseded by on takashi murakami, other superior assistants, which creates a perception that they may be providing unnecessary assistance. Other factors that inhibit individuals from providing help include the fear of facing the legal outcomes and providing substandard and perhaps dangerous aid. A limitation of Darley and Latane’s explanation of the bystander effect is that it only focuses on informational social influence and ignores other forms of conformity such as normative social influence. Normative social influence usually takes place when an individual conforms in order to be accepted by african paper, a social group. According to on takashi murakami, the social impact theory, normative social influence increases with an enlargement in the group size. Texts In Essays? This can be used to challenge the concept of bystander effect, wherein an individual can opt to provide assistance in order to be accepted. Similar, people may opt to follow the essays on takashi murakami, actions undertaken by stanford short essay prompts, an individual who is providing assistance in order to achieve social acceptance. Another aspect of conformity not explained by Darley and Latane is minority influence, wherein an individual in a minority group aims at on takashi influencing the involvement, majority group to accept the beliefs and behavior of the minority group (Hudson and Bruckman 100). Experiments conducted by Darley and Latane provided precise explanations for the bystander effect, a social psychological occurrence that refers to scenarios where individuals do not provide help during emergency cases to the victim in the presence of other people. This paper has illustrated that the bystander effect takes place through social influence and diffusion of responsibility, with the murder case of Genovese Kitty serving as a classical example of the bystander effect.

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Print. Levine, Mark and Simon Crowther. “The Responsive Bystander: How Social Group Membership and Group Size Can Encourage as Well as Inhibit Bystander Intervention.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95.6 (2008): 1429–1439. Essays On Takashi Murakami? Print. Meyers, David. Social Psychology. New York: McGraw- Hill, 2010. Write A Sonne? Print. Miles, Hewstone, Jonas Klaus and Stroebe Wolfgang. An Introduction to essays on takashi murakami, Social Psychology.

New York: John Wiley Sons, 2012. Print. Nairne, James. Psychology. New York: Cengage Learning, 2010. American Literature Research Paper? Print.